Geological and physical parameters of Cilento


Geological and physical parameters of the area in front of Cilento

Area under consideration, the cilento (between approximately between the Gulf of Salerno and the Gulf of Policastro, in the southern part of the region), it has a varied morphology, formed by mountains and plains, overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea with cliffs and small beaches.

We therefore find a variety of landscapes, from the rocky coast to the sands of the beaches, insinuated into small hollows. We are also in the presence of karst phenomena, therefore on the coast both emerged and submerged, we can see numerous caves.

This variety also leads to a complex and varied ecosystem that makes the area in question a pearl of the Mediterranean.

The depths of Cilento, like the emerged land, are full of archaeological remains of considerable interest. Fortunately, the area has not been excessively man-made, thus maintaining its original characteristics.

They were like that established numerous Nature Reserves and Parks, including the Punta Licosa Marine Park. Also thanks to this, we are in the presence of an almost uncontaminated nature, both in the marine and terrestrial areas.

On the coast of Marina Di Camerata, several expeditions have been organized that have contributed to the knowledge of the place, and that have managed to identify five submerged caves with an outlet on the surface.

Cilento originates in the Miocene, when tectonic movements brought it to light from the depths of the sea.

The sediments that form the current coastline are much more recent, and date back to about 10,000 years ago, the Holocene period.

Of particular geological interest is theLicosa island, formed, unlike other places in Cilento, by “Flysch del Cilento”, a stratification of the rocks, which often leads to particular shapes and colors.

The backdrop it descends very steeply in concomitance with the cliffs up to over 50m where it meets the muddy expanse, while in the direction of the coves, the slope decreases while maintaining a pebbly sandy granulometry.

In the direction of the cliffs it is possible to find vast shoals beaten by strong currents, with fractures and underwater edges of considerable underwater interest.

In the hard substrate areas it is possible to find the typical fauna of the Mediterranean, with groupers, browns, bream, salpe and sea bream, as well as numerous species of crustaceans.

The currents coming from the north, from the middle Tyrrhenian circulation, they bring nutrients for the fauna present. There are moderately strong currents along the submerged, remarkably steep walls. Added to this is that the coast has no defense from the predominant current from the north.

These gradient currents are due to the difference in density that is created by variations in temperature and salinity.

The wind predominant in the area of ​​Palinuro, a large tourist center as far as diving is concerned, is the Mistral; in the Marina di Camerata area we will have the Levante, Scirocco and Libeccio.

Dr. Rossella Stocco

Geological sections and geognostic tests of the Emilia Romagna plain

The map shows the traces of 97 geological sections and the location of over 2700 geognostic tests (217 continuous core drilling and 2537 penetrometric tests with electric tip) falling in the Emilia-Romagna plain.

For both types of data, through the map it is possible to access the respective graphs, which allow to obtain information on the deposits aged between the Middle Pleistocene and the Holocene, of mainly alluvial origin, which filled the Po valley up to arrive at the current conformation of the plain territory and the coast.

The sections and the boreholes report indications on the stratigraphic units, the lithologies and the geometries of the geological bodies present in depth, the penetrometric tests measure physical parameters that can be used for geotechnical analyzes and give indirect indications on the lithology of the terrain crossed. From all this information it is possible to reconstruct the distribution in the subsoil of the most important aquifers and aquitards of the Emilia-Romagna plain.

It is possible to query the elements on the map, by choosing in the appropriate area (QUESTION LEVEL) the one you are interested in from the queryable levels, then clicking the element directly on the map. The result of the query will appear below, possibly with links to access the graphic documents.
For penetrometric tests, in addition to accessing the graphic document that shows the trends of the parameters recorded during the test, it is possible to download the same parameters in numerical format.
By querying the “Municipal limits” level, it is possible to access the geological sections and surveys falling within the territory of the Municipality questioned.

Here are some aspects related to the climate and morphology of the lower Cilento hills.

The climate of the area is temperate-warm. With hot and very dry summer especially in the lower areas. While in the higher ones it is fresher although always dry.

However, it is a climate influenced by the proximity of the sea and the humidity that comes from it. Which also partially compensates for the summer drought.

Climate and morphology of the lower Cilento hills. Overall the climate is suitable for beech and chestnut. And in general also to those species which require a high coefficient of oceans for their vegetative vigor.

For a precise definition of the rainfall regime, it was not possible to resort to local stations. And the climatic constants were measured from that of Casalvelino (m.220 s.l.m.). As far as the rainfall regime is concerned, it can be said that it has a typically Mediterranean character. With a maximum of winter rainfall. Then a second autumn high. And finally a summer minimum.

The average annual rainfall assumes values ​​between 1100 and 1250 mm. Overall, rainfall is not scarce. While the excursions from one year to the next are quite pronounced. In some cases, the summer drought is longer and lasts three to four months. The rains are so little that the water evaporates immediately due to the high summer temperature and hot winds.

During this period the trees minimize the transpiration processes. And they draw the necessary water from the deeper layers, thus managing to survive. The behavior of the seedlings is different. In particular, by exploring only the surface state of the ground where water is scarce, they often die.

In conclusion, only plants with a deep root system are able to overcome the dry period. Snowfall is frequent during winter and more persistent at higher altitudes. Reaching maximum values ​​in December and February.

Even the wind, as an ecological factor, exerts a negative influence on the vegetation. Some summer rains that are very useful to it, in fact, do not have the desired effect. And they lose their effectiveness precisely because they are accompanied by winds that cause rapid evaporation of the water even before it has reached the roots of the plants. According to the Pavari classification, the thermal regime of a large part of the Cilento area can be broadly characterized by assigning:

  • The stations from 500-600m and 700-800m in the hot sub-zone - 2nd type with summer drought - of Castanetum. Average annual temperature from 10 ° to 15 °. Average of the coldest month from 0 ° to 3 °. Average of absolute minimums> -12 °. The stations from 700-800m to 900-1100m in the cold sub-zone - 1st type with annual rainfall> 700mm - of Castanetum. Average annual temperature from 10 ° to 15 °. Average of the coldest month greater than -1 °. Minimum average not less than -15 °.
  • The stations from 900-1100m to 1400-1500m in the warm sub-area (only for some small sections in cold transition) of the Fagetum. Average annual temperature from 7 ° to 12 °. Average temperature of the coldest month not lower than -2 °. Average of the absolute minimums not less than -20 °.

However, the distribution of vegetation does not strictly follow this classification. Some forest species typical of Castanetum are in fact mixed with beech. Thus climbing in altitude even in relatively high stations.

The altitudes of the Cilento area also vary rapidly. Equally rapidly changing the characteristics and morphology of the areas.

The exposure is very variable and in any case represented in its various forms. The somewhat variable inclinations go from a minimum of 15% to a maximum of 80% (rocky crags of Monte Scuro). The areas with a slope of less than 20% represent the limit within which agricultural mechanization can take place without particular problems.

The exposure and inclination of the slopes are, rather than the altitude, the differential parameters of the climate. Finally, the hydrography is quite poor and represented by a few torrential streams.

In these lines we have deepened the climate and the morphology of the hills of the lower Cilento. But the latter is characterized by a varied territory. More can be appreciated. Mountains, hills, plains. Coastlines, rivers, springs, woods.

If you are interested in other useful information, visit our portal ( You will find other articles regarding Cilento.

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Geognostic tests

By querying the surveys, information is obtained on the depth reached by the test, on the date of execution of the survey and on the possible depth from the ground level of the first intercepted rough horizon, also in this case the relative graphic document can be opened (average size around 350 KB) , with the description of the stratigraphy of the survey. The depth of the boreholes varies from 8 to 220 meters.

The stratigraphies reported relate to continuous core drilling in which the soils crossed by the core drilling were examined and described directly by the technical staff of the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service. For the vast majority, these are surveys carried out for the Geological Map of Italy Project. The information present concerns the lithologies, and generally also the stratigraphic units crossed, the depositional environments present, the executing company and the geologist who prepared the log. Sometimes there is some additional information related to radiometric dating at 14 C, or to the geotechnical characteristics of the terrain crossed.

Documents can be printed or stored on your computer.

For some of these surveys, the land recovered during drilling ("carrots") is available. It is possible to view these land after direct contact with our structure.

By interrogating the penetrometries, information is obtained on the depth reached by the test, on the date of execution and on the depth at which the test has intercepted a probable rough horizon (conclusion of the test for exceeding the instrumental limit values). Also for this type of test it is possible to open the relative graphic document (average size around 80 KB), with the graphs of the values ​​of the parameters recorded by the instrument during the test.

The same values ​​can be downloaded in Excel spreadsheet format to be processed with software dedicated to the interpretation of penetrometric data.
In addition to the download performed following the query of a single penetrometry, it is possible to select the tests to download directly on the map using the appropriate tool in the "TOOLS" area.

The penetrometric tests on the map were carried out for the Geological Map Project of Italy.

Due to the temporal deviation of the realization of two types of documents (geological sections and surveys), it is possible that between them there may sometimes be a difference in interpretation, especially on the stratigraphic units.In these cases it is advisable to refer to the information reported geological sections.

"High Speed ​​in Cilento", a Committee established: headquarters in Vallo della Lucania

VALLO SCALO. On February 26 at the office of the notary Lucio Mazzarella in Vallo Scalo, the "High Speed ​​Committee in Cilento" was set up by a notary deed, made up of citizens of the Cilento area representing various sectors of the world of work, with non-political purposes and for the reconsideration of the "High Speed" project which in this design phase would exclude an area of ​​150 km, from Salerno to the Sele plain, to Capaccio - Paestum and to the Gulf of Policastro, penalizing the already heavily suffering area for the lack of a motorway, major railway stations and an airport.

The new project that bypasses Cilento constitutes an offense to history and geography and condemns an area as vast as Molise to civil death. It is therefore necessary that the mayors, the parliamentarians, the provincial and regional councilors, the citizens all, break the delay and without flag or line conditioning to join together for this cause. To date, more than 1500 citizens have mobilized to support this project.

The "High Speed ​​in Cilento" Committee aims to work in synergy with all the representatives of the territory, listening to the different parties and avoiding creating splits and parochialism between the different areas of the Region and also aims to operate only for the progress of all in the belief that no development is possible without a solid and efficient network of infrastructures.

The Committee works as a priority to recover the RFI project which has invested enormous public resources in over 15 years of planning on the Ogliastro-Sapri variant and which now appears suddenly and without anyone knowing anything about it, set aside although already approved by the Cipe, subjected to environmental impact assessments, feasibility studies and geological surveys, the only advanced project in Southern Italy, with the possibility of making it ready for construction in a short time, compared to the cyclopean times for a new process that would require another decade of studies.

The headquarters of the Committee is located in Vallo della Lucania in via Francesco Cammarota, at number 19. The Chairman is Egidio Marchetti.


  • 1 Physical geography
    • 1.1 Territory
    • 1.2 Climate
  • 2 History
  • 3 Monuments and places of interest
    • 3.1 Velia
      • 3.1.1 History of the city of Elea-Velia
      • 3.1.2 Geography of the city of Elea-Velia
  • 4 Company
    • 4.1 Demographic evolution
    • 4.2 Ethnicities and foreign minorities
    • 4.3 Religion
  • 5 Culture
    • 5.1 Museum of the paradox
  • 6 Anthropogenic geography
    • 6.1 Fractions
  • 7 Economy
  • 8 Infrastructure and transport
    • 8.1 Roads
    • 8.2 Urban mobility
  • 9 Administration
    • 9.1 Toponym
    • 9.2 Other administrative information
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 Related items
  • 12 Other projects
  • 13 External links

Territory Edit

Ascea stands on a hill close to its own "Marina", at about 235 m s.l.m. The town is divided from the municipality of Pisciotta by a fjord crossed by the SS 447. This fjord, on the "asceoto" side of which a Bourbon tower rises, is about 2 km from the town. It is located in the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park. The town is about 5 km from Velia, 9 from Pisciotta, 15 from Vallo della Lucania and 95 from Salerno

Climate Change

The nearest weather station is Casal Velino. On the basis of the 30-year reference average 1961-1990, the average temperature of the coldest month, January, is +8.7 ° C that of the hottest month, August, is +25.7 ° C [5].

Probably born around the year 1000, the population grew due to the transfer of the inhabitants of the medieval settlement of Castellammare della Bruca (ancient Velia) due to the spread of malaria due to the swamping of the Alento plain. Feud of the Sanseverino family, it followed its fate until it passed to the Maresca family, feudal lords following the "felony" of Tommaso S.Severino (conspiracy of the Barons of around 1450).

Ascea participated in the Cilento uprisings of 1828, following which the local notable Teodosio De Dominicis was tried and executed.

From 1811 to 1860 it was part of the Pisciotta district, belonging to the Vallo district of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

From 1860 to 1927, during the Kingdom of Italy it was part of the district of Pisciotta, belonging to the district of Vallo della Lucania.

Velia Edit

History of the city of Elea-Velia Edit

The Greek historian and geographer Strabo tells of the city of Elea In his work Geography (VI, 252), specifying however that the founders, the Focei, initially called it Hyele, name which is then changed to Ele to finish with Elea.

However, it must be taken into account that the founders used a more archaic Greek alphabet than that of Strabo (as evidenced by the most ancient coins), and therefore used the "digamma", one of the lost letters of that alphabet. The digamma, which is graphically similar to an F, is pronounced as the v Italian, thus giving the name of the city the sound of "Sails". In the transcription, however, many Focei no longer used the digamma, thus transcribing the letter F with Ύ and transforming "Vele" into "Hyele" (Ύέλην).

Not even Antiochus of Syracuse, the source to which Strabo refers, had the digamma at his disposal, choosing however to ignore the letter and simply transcribing "Ele" (Έλην).

As for the writing "Elea" (Ελέαν), it is an Attic deformation that is not found before Plato, in the fourth century BC: two centuries, that is, after the foundation of the city.

The Romans, from 535 BC about, they called her Velia.

Geography of the city of Elea-Velia Edit

City of Magna Graecia, located on the western coast of southern Italy, it was founded by the Focei, who came from Ionia fleeing the Persian occupation.

At the beginning the city stands on two ports, one to the north and one to the south: the Focei, use the port to the south, while the Sybarites, the indigenous population, use the one to the north, called "the houses of the night" because they are always in shadow. The two ports are joined by a road called "la via del Nume", which in turn is divided into two parts: "the road of the night" is called the stretch to the north, and therefore in the shade, "the road of the day" the southern section is called.

The relations between the two populations are soured when the Sybarites, the natives, refuse the friendship with the city of Crotone, a friendship that is instead tightened by the Focei: the latter divide the two parts of the city with a door when the Sybarites decide to implement a secession.

But the threat of invasion by the Syracusans causes the Sybarites to press to unite the city into a single great force to oppose the enemy. Although there are many pressures to maintain the division, the unitary drive prevails and so the sage Parmenides (later known as the Presocratic philosopher) is commissioned to deal with the negotiations. Gathered the two factions, to seal the unity of Vele Parmenides decides to cross the "via del Nume" on a chariot pulled by mares.

After the enterprise, Parmenides became legislator and first citizen of Vele, and governed it until his death. He writes his deeds by composing a poem that begins with the crossing of the "via del Nume", at the end of which the goddess Justice personally dictates the laws to be applied to the city.


  • 1 Origins of the name
  • 2 Geography
    • 2.1 Territory
    • 2.2 Climate
    • 2.3 Hydrography
      • 2.3.1 Rivers
      • 2.3.2 Lakes
  • 3 History
  • 4 Company
    • 4.1 Demographic evolution
    • 4.2 Languages ​​and dialects
    • 4.3 Religion
  • 5 Anthropogenic geography
    • 5.1 Administrative divisions
      • 5.1.1 Regions
      • 5.1.2 Major cities
  • 6 Economy
    • 6.1 Tourism
  • 7 Infrastructure and transport
    • 7.1 Energy
    • 7.2 Transportation
  • 8 Politics
    • 8.1 Government
      • 8.1.1 Executive power
      • 8.1.2 Legislative power
      • 8.1.3 Judicial power
      • 8.1.4 Judicial system
      • 8.1.5 Local Government
      • 8.1.6 Counties
    • 8.2 Federal Representatives
    • 8.3 Elections
    • 8.4 Armed Forces
  • 9 Administration
    • 9.1 Twinning
  • 10 Sports
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 Related items
  • 13 Other projects
  • 14 External links

A probable origin is from the Native American kali kiln, which means "high mountain". [2] Another probable origin is from Las sergas de Esplandián, a Spanish poem in which Queen Califia and her paradise island, the Island of California, were described, in turn inspired by an incomprehensible passage from the Chanson de Roland (11th century), which in v. 2 924 cites the toponym of Califerne. [3] [4] [5] [6] In reality the origin of the name is still a matter of dispute. [7]

California's official nickname is "The Golden State" (the state of gold), with reference to the Californian gold rush, but is also called "The State of the Sun", given its very sunny and arid subtropical climate.

Territory Edit

California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east, Arizona to the southeast, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. With an area of ​​423 970 km² it is the third largest American state, after Alaska and Texas.

Californian geography is very diverse and complex. At the heart of the state lies the Central Valley of California, bordered by the coastal mountains to the west, the Sierra Nevada to the east, the Cascade Range to the north and the Tehachapi Mountains to the south. The Central Valley is the agricultural heart of California and produces food in quantities relevant to the entire United States. The northernmost half is also known as the Sacramento Valley (washed by the Sacramento River), while the partially deserted southern half is known as the San Joaquin Valley (bathed by the San Joaquin River). Through dredging, both the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin manage to stay deep enough to allow several cities in the interior to be port cities. Furthermore, these waterways are the main source of water supply for the state.

The Channel Islands are located off the south coast and are a major wildlife oasis.

The Sierra Nevada ("snowy chain", homonymous of the Spanish mountain massif) has the highest peak of all 48 contiguous states, Mount Whitney (4 421 m), the famous Yosemite National Park and a deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the most of the State by volume of water. To the east of the Sierra Nevada are the Owens Valley, which separates it from the White Mountains, and Mono Lake, a habitat of great importance for migratory birds. 'is Clear Lake (180 km²) The Sierra Nevada reaches arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including the southernmost glacier in all of the United States, the Palisade.

About 45 percent of the state's entire land area is forested (only Alaska has a higher percentage), and diversity in California's pine species is not found in any other state. In the south there is a large salt lake, the Salton Sea.

Deserts cover about 25% of the state's territory. The desert of the central southern part is called the Mojave Desert north-east of the Mojave opens the Death Valley, in which is the lowest and hottest point in North America, the Badwater Flat. The highest depression in Death Valley and the summit of Mount Whitney are less than 300km away. Almost all of southern California is arid, very hot and desert, with temperatures that normally reach very high values ​​in summer.

Along the coast meet the major metropolitan areas: San José-San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles-Long Beach, Santa Ana-Irvine-Anaheim and San Diego.

California is famous for earthquakes. These are due to the presence of faults, in particular the Faglia di Sant'Andrea. It is also subject to the risk of tsunamis, forest fires, landslides and has numerous volcanoes.

Climate Change

The Californian climate is varied, also due to the considerable extension in latitude: along the southern coasts it is generally of a warm temperate / subtropical type, with a temperature and rainfall very similar to that of the Mediterranean climate and Mediterranean vegetation. In these areas, winters are not rainy and are characterized by warm temperatures (in January 15 ° C in Los Angeles, 17 ° C in San Diego), while summers are generally hot (28 ° C during the day in August in Los Angeles , 30 ° C by day in San Diego) and overall dry and windy, the northern coastal areas have instead a temperate oceanic, sub-humid climate, with mild and rainy winters (the isotherm of 8 ° C in January laps the coast near the border with Oregon), on the contrary, the summers are cool (averages in August and September around 18 ° C), because the sea is very cold in relation to the latitude (due to the California Current), this determines a significant cooling action on the air masses stationed near the coastal areas, nevertheless, even in the northern regions the summers are very little rainy.

Located in the central sector of California, the San Francisco Bay, a rather narrow and deep inlet, into which a branch of the cold California Current creeps, is characterized by peculiar climatic conditions, if in fact the winter thermal regime is not unlike that of the others. central-northern Californian areas (January average of 9.6 ° C in San Francisco), the cold sea surface waters heavily affect the climate of this narrow coastal strip and determine cool summers (especially in June-July) and widespread nebulous conditions summer.

As we move away from the coast, the effect of the Pacific Ocean on the Californian climate tends to diminish, while the one induced by the orography increases, in fact if in the sublittoral plain of the Central Valley we still have a thermal regime not too dissimilar to the coastal one. , although with slightly colder winters, warmer summers and a much wider diurnal temperature range, when moving towards the rocky mountains, rainfall tends to increase, while at the same time the average temperatures decrease, the thermal / pluviometric regime progressively becomes alpine . Finally, the south-eastern regions of the state, characterized by tabulated, penepian and various closed endorheic basins, are characterized by a desert-like climate, the maximum exasperation of which is found in the deep depression of the Death Valley where temperatures were recorded in summer. among the highest ever measured on Earth and where average rainfall is very low (a few mm / m² per year).

Maximum daily temperatures and minimum temperatures [8]
Location August (° F) August (° C) December (° F) December (° C)
Los Angeles 84/64 29/18 67/47 20/8
LA Shoreline 75/65 23/18 64/48 18/9
San Jose 82/58 27/14 58/42 14/5
San Francisco 68/55 20/12 57/46 14/8
San Diego 76/66 24/19 64/48 18/9
Oakland 73/57 23/14 58/44 14/7
Sacrament 91/58 33/14 54/38 12/3
Fresno 97/66 36/19 55/38 12/3
Riverside 96/64 35/18 68/41 21/5

Hydrography Edit

Rivers Edit

The two most important rivers in California are the Sacramento River (719 km) and the San Joaquin River (530 km), which cross the Central Valley, bordering the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, and merge near San Francisco and flow into the Bay. of San Francisco. Several major tributaries feed the Sacramento and San Joaquin, including the Pit, the Tuolumne, and the Feather.

Among the minor rivers, outside the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin, the Klamath (423 km) and the Eel ("River of Eels", 315 km) and in the central part the Salinas (282 km) are worth mentioning. . In the southern part of the state there are only shorter rivers (especially the Santa Ana, 154 km) or landlocked rivers such as the Mojave River (177 km) or the Amargosa River which originates in Nevada and feeds the aquifer of the Death Valley and the Badwater Basin.

The Colorado River (2,339 km) marginally bathes California along the southeastern border with Arizona.

Lakes Edit

California shares Lake Tahoe with Nevada (496 km², about 30% more than Lake Garda), considered the largest alpine lake in the United States.

There are numerous salt lakes of various types, all endorheic: among the most important, to the north is Lake Goose (Geese Lake, 368 km²), divided with Oregon in the center the Mono lake (180 km²), of volcanic origin in the south the great Salton lake (889 km²), which was formed in recent times (1905) on the place where it had already existed a similar lake during the Pleistocene.

The first European to explore the Californian coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542, followed by Francis Drake in 1579. Beginning in 1769, Spanish Franciscan missionaries set up tiny settlements on huge land concessions in the vast territory north of Spanish California proper. (now Baja California). After Mexico's independence from Spain, the Californian missions became property of the Mexican government and were quickly decommissioned and abandoned, while the local European population generally remained pro-Spanish until 1822.

California was the name given to the northwestern part of the Spanish Empire in North America. The strategic position of the region raised British, French and Russian claims on its territory from the early 19th century (construction of the Russian trading base of Fort Ross, 1812). The strong immigration of settlers from the United States, also caused by the discovery of gold, triggered the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, following which the region was divided between Mexico and the United States. The Mexican part, Baja California (Baja California), was later divided into the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. The US part, Alta California, became the US state of California on 9 September 1850.

In 1848, the Spanish-speaking population of distant Upper California was about 4,000 but, after the discovery of gold in the Californian subsoil, the population increased rapidly thanks to the influx of Americans and some Europeans for the gold rush. Californian. Venne fondata una repubblica, con una sua bandiera raffigurante un orso d'oro ed una stella. La Repubblica giunse alla fine quando il commodoro John D. Sloat della marina degli Stati Uniti entrò nella Baia di San Francisco rivendicando la California per gli Stati Uniti. Nel 1850 lo Stato venne ammesso nell'Unione.

Durante la Guerra di secessione americana il supporto popolare rimase diviso tra i partigiani del Nord e quelli del Sud, e sebbene ufficialmente la California si schierasse con il Nord, volontari parteciparono alla guerra su entrambi i fronti.

La connessione della costa pacifica con le già popolose metropoli dell'est arrivò nel 1869, con il completamento della prima ferrovia transcontinentale. I residenti inoltre stavano iniziando a scoprire quanto la California fosse adatta alla coltivazione di frutta ed all'agricoltura in genere. Gli agrumi, in particolare le arance, vi crescevano rigogliosi e furono quindi gettate le basi per la prodigiosa produzione agricola dello Stato al giorno d'oggi.

Nel periodo 1900 – 1965 la popolazione, inizialmente di meno di un milione di abitanti, crebbe fino a far diventare questo Stato il più popoloso dell'Unione e guadagnando così il maggior numero di grandi elettori per le elezioni presidenziali. A partire dal 1965, la popolazione si trasformò fino a diventare una delle più varie dal punto di vista etnico nel mondo. La California è uno Stato con tendenze liberali, avanzato tecnologicamente e culturalmente, centro mondiale nel campo dell'ingegneria, dell'industria cinematografica e televisiva e della produzione agricola.

Palinuro è la frazione principale del comune di Centola, ed è un paese del Cilento immerso a tra verde delle colline a monte e vastità cristallina delle acque a valle. Uno scenario da sogno nel quale ogni anno orde di turisti decidono di trascorrere la loro serena e spettacolare vacanza. Palinuro è conosciuta in tutta Italia e anche all’estero come vera e propria perla, dalla bellezza incontaminata anche per il suo mitico “Capo Palinuro”, costone di roccia sulla quale impera il glorioso faro e per la leggenda del nocchiero di Enea, Palinuro appunto, dal quale il paese prende nome. La peculiarità principale quella delle spiagge, tra le migliori della costiera italiana. Il Buon Dormire, l’Arco Naturale (sulla quale sono stati girati vari film tra i quali “Scontro di Titani” e “Wonder Woman”), il Mingardo e la Marinella sono solo alcune delle meravigliose cale e baie dal quale poter tuffarsi in uno splendido mare, premiato da anni con la Bandiera Blu, e fare lunghe passeggiate sulla immensa vastità di sabbia.

La Spiaggia del Buondormire si trova a Palinuro, nella zona sud del suo “frontone” (falesia, promontorio di roccia a picco sul mare). Si può considerare un piccolo angolo di paradiso: è una delle spiagge più belle del litorale e tra le più conosciute. A poche decine di metri da riva c’è un grande scoglio emergente dall’acqua che la sua incredibile somiglianza assegna il nome: lo scoglio del coniglio!

La Spiaggia del Buondormire è caratterizzata da sabbia finissima e da un chioschetto che fornisce ristoro. L’acqua ha un colore particolarmente brillante e cristallino.

La spiaggia del Buondormire è raggiungibile via mare. Oppure a piedi con unico accesso non comodissimo: circa 400 scalini che partono dall’interno dell’Hotel King! Ma tranquilli, lo spettacolo che troverete vale lo sforzo. Inoltre dal Porto di Palinuro troverete un servizio navetta che vi porta a destinazione. In ultimo, per fisici atletici … arrivati alla Spiaggia della Marinella, qualche bracciata vi porterà al Buondormire.

Certo, non è una spiaggia facilmente raggiungibile, ma c’è una sola certezza: ne vale la pena!

La Marinella a Palinuro è una particolare spiaggia che si trova nella zona sud del promontorio di Palinuro.

Si può raggiungere in auto, imboccando via Marinella e seguendo la strada fin quasi sulla spiaggia. Ci sono aree parcheggio a servizio dei lidi presenti e anche un caratteristico “servizio zattera” per guardare il fiume Lambro.

La comodità nel raggiungere questa baia, insieme alla sabbia presente, la rende una spiaggia adatta per famiglie e per bambini.

Lo spettacolo mozzafiato che troverete è lo scoglio del coniglio, grande scoglio emergente e non molto distante da riva, che somiglia in modo stupefacente proprio ad un coniglio. Nei pressi della spiaggia della Marinella, subito a nord, c’è la Spiaggia del Buondormire. Ma non finisce qui: la scogliera della Molpa, le grotte emerse e sommerse poste nelle vicinanze, la foce del fiume Lambro e soprattutto … un mare incantevole!

La spiaggia delle Saline è una delle spiagge più belle e tra le più conosciute del Cilento. Si trova sul litorale di Palinuro, nella sua parte settentrionale, distendendosi verso Marina di Pisciotta. E’ un tratto di costa sabbioso lungo circa 5 km. La sabbia ha la caratteristica di essere fine e dorata, il fondale del mare è relativamente basso. La spiaggia è pianeggiante e si trova a ridosso della strada, con comodi e ampi parcheggi: ideale per famiglie con bambini. Il mare è particolarmente suggestivo: azzurro, cristallino, trasparente, i fondali sono sabbiosi. La spiaggia delle Saline offre, lungo il suo litorale, anche vari servizi (lidi, chioschi, noleggio sdraio e ombrelloni, etc.), e vi è la presenza di bagnini.

Palinuro è una meta turistica molto ricercata e tra le più famose del Cilento. Una delle infrastrutture più importanti è il suo porticciolo.

Il Porto di Palinuro è un pò fuori standard. Inquinamento? Neanche un pò. Impossibilità di fare un bagno. Assolutamente no, infatti c’è una spiaggia con un’acqua cristallina, e una sabbia finissima e dorata.

Sebbene siamo a poca distanza dalle dune poste più a nord, o dalle spiagge incastonate nelle insenature poste più a sud, fare il bagno nel porto di Palinuro è un’ottima scelta.

Per raggiungere il Porto di Palinuro bisogna attraversare il centro abitato e seguire le indicazioni che vi portano comodamente a destinazione.

Sul porto troverete anche alcune attività. Approfittatene, sono esperienze da non perdere: gite in barca, escursioni a mare, etc.

Collina della Molpa: è un’area non custodita ed è un sito archeologico che ha restituito una copiosa documentazione archeologica scaglionata tra il paleolotico/neolitico fino all’epoca classica ed ellenistica. Purtroppo per il visitatore è difficile perpecirne l’importanza in quanto i resti archeologici non conservano un elevato visibile e per lo più sono interrati. Ma per tale area è noto che la collina di tempa San Paolo era occupata da un insediamento indigeno sorto nella seconda metà del XI secolo A.C.

Borgo Medievale di San Seevrino: il borgo medievale molto probabilmente venne fondato in epoca Longobarda. Attualmente sono visibili il Castello, posto in posizione sopraelevata, e le case del sottostante borgo disabitato. Si affaccia sulla valle del fiume Mingardo, occupando una posizione altamente strategica.

Palazzo Baronale Rinaldi (a Palinuro): faceva parte del feudo del principe di Centola e marchese di Pisciotta Pappacoda fino alla fne del 1700 circa.

Palazzo Baronale Lupo: è da collocarsi alla fine del XIII secolo. Il capostipite fu Ludovico OrazionBonifacio Lupo di origine Longobarda. Durante i secoli successivi è stato più volte ristrutturato avendo subito incendi e saccheggi. Fu costruito dai Sauci, poi Serra, e attualmente via Imbriaco. Fino a pochi anni fa visitandolo si poteva ammirare una grande sala di proporzioni principesche sui cui muri spiccavano quadri risorgimentali. Oggi essa è stata suddivisa in diversi vani.

Convento dei Cappuccini: vi si possono ammirare un altare barocco in legno di noce intagliato, statue artistiche scolpte in legno dal 1500 al 1800 e quadri del 1500-1600.

Torre Campanara la torre campanaria fu inaugurata nell’ 893. E’ ubicata ne centro storico di Centola.

Torri Costiere e Fortini: nel comune furono realizzate tra il 550 e il 1600 4 torri costiere in diverse punte della costa e 2 fortini difensivi in località Capo Palinuro che facevano parte del sistema difensivo di avvistamento dei pirati saraceni che all’epoca compivano incursioni a danno dei paesi costieri.

Castello S. Sergio (località S. Sergio): è un edificio signorile dotato di torrette di avvistamentom corte chiusa da muri e disposto su più livelli, con portale in pietra ad ornamento del portone d’ingresso e scala doppia laterale. E’ ubicato in posizione panoramica, si affaccia sul litorale della zona Mingardo e del promontorio di Capo Palinuro.

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