Read the previous part: Growing viola: varieties, reproduction, preparation of seedlings
Viola seedlings start picking as soon as the first pair of true leaves is formed, about a month and a half after sowing. The seedlings dive into small containers with a diameter of 8-10 cm, they are planted one at a time, the substrate is moistened, and in this state they are grown.
Seedlings planted in pots are usually kept at a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° C, watered as the substrate dries up and illuminated for an hour in the morning and evening. In order for the seedlings to develop well, and the root system to recover faster after the pick, it is necessary to carry out a series of dressings again, using complex mineral fertilizers for this. The main thing is that fertilizers do not contain urea and ammonia.
Usually it takes 2.5-3 months from sowing seeds to obtaining full-fledged plants ready for planting in a permanent place, and if you want to get flowering plants that can be used to immediately decorate a flower bed, then in this case you will have to hold the seedlings in containers for two weeks longer.
But the violet is good not only because it can bloom in the spring-summer-autumn periods, it can also be achieved from it that it blooms in winter, when there is frost outside the window and a blizzard howls. Establishing such a process is a whole science, and it is called distillation. Forcing is also applicable for our viola, for this plant it is necessary to plant it in any container and carry out a number of simple measures.
It all starts, naturally, with sowing seeds, which are sown in boxes or containers in ordinary soil and placed in a cold greenhouse. This must be done in late June - early July. By the end of July or the beginning of August, the seeds germinate and shoots appear.
As soon as they get stronger and form a couple of real leaves, it will be necessary to plant them in about 2-3 pieces in pots, the diameter of which is at least 10 cm.After planting, the pots with plants must be dug into the garden, slightly shaded and watered periodically, avoiding the drying of the earthen coma. You can also avoid sowing seeds in pots, they allow planting plants growing on the site.
In mid-September or early October, containers with the most well-developed plants are transferred to a heated room or to a heated greenhouse, where the temperature is maintained at + 5 ... + 6 ° C. As soon as the first flower stalks appear on the plants, it is necessary to increase the room temperature to + 12 ° C - it will contribute to a more lush and long-lasting violet flowering. It will be possible to admire them already in December.
And now I will tell you more about the correct cultivation of viola and, in conclusion, how you can use the violet.
Let's start with agricultural technology, it is not difficult, because viols are unpretentious and very undemanding plants, they tolerate transplanting well, they begin to grow especially vividly in a new place, if the clod of earth is not destroyed during transplantation.
One of the main conditions for obtaining full-fledged plants is the right choice of a place for planting. All violets simply adore well-lit, with only a little shade in the midday hours, places with loose, moderately moist and fertile soil. It is better not to plant plants in a dense shade, there they can bloom for a longer time, however, the flowering itself will not be as bright and lush as in a lighted place.
To plant viola, it is advisable to prepare the soil in advance, you need to dig it up, add compost or humus, and then plant the plants, observing the planting scheme. The optimal arrangement of plants on the site is 20-30 cm from each other. Immediately after planting, the soil must be watered, and then mulched with peat or humus with a layer of about 4-6 cm. This will save irrigation moisture, quickly take root in the plants in a new place and serve as additional nutrition for the roots.
Further care of the plants is not difficult; periodic loosening of the soil should be carried out, weeds should be removed, and the plants should be watered. Particularly much attention must be paid to water regulation, violets are afraid of both stagnant moisture and drought, so the soil must be periodically moistened, but this must be done in moderation. Viola responds well to the periodic application of mineral fertilizers in the form of solutions. It will take about 35-40 g per bucket of water.
To maximize the decorative effect of viola flowering, it is necessary to promptly remove all faded inflorescences. By the way, this will also completely exclude or minimize self-seeding.
In the autumn, when cold weather sets in, but when the snow has not yet fallen, all previously planted plants should be covered with peat, and then covered with spruce branches, it will protect the plants from the cold and serve as a good snow accumulator.
As for the use of violets, their purpose is the broadest - they act as exquisite border plants, occupy an important place in the flower bed, and, due to the presence of a huge number of forms with different growth rates and different colors, they also serve as monocultural or mixed flower beds.
Florists and decorators use viols to form chic floral and decorative compositions, which include bright spring flower beds, chic borders, magnificent ridges, as well as bright spots of rock gardens and rockeries.
Recently, the use of violets as container plants has come into vogue. For this, wide and low flowerpots are suitable, which can be placed both in open areas and along paths, on stairs, on window sills, balconies and loggias.
Viola will not be superfluous in joint plantings, it is ideally combined with any plants that are low and suitable for the range of colors, be it forget-me-nots, arabis, primroses, muscari or scilla.
As I already mentioned, violets can also be used for cutting, beautiful flowers can stand for a whole week if the water in the vase is changed daily.
department of berry crops VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin.
Photo by Natalia Myshina and Natalia Butyagina
Read also about violets:
• Fragrant violet - medicinal and ornamental plant
• Saintpaulia, peculiarities of growing in an apartment, watering and feeding
• Rules for growing uzambara violets
• Saintpaulia - Usambara violet, creating conditions for growing
• Infectious diseases of the uzambara violet: powdery mildew, fusarium, gray rot
Carnation herb is a herbaceous plant that grows both in natural conditions and with the help of human cultivation. This culture is perennial, like other representatives of the clove family, it is distinguished by its ground cover, and without proper care it quickly loses its decorative effect, abundantly growing on the ground. The description of herbal clove has a number of features.
When creating landscape compositions, tapeworm plants are often used. Such an unusual name is "assigned" to a plant that grows on the lawn all alone. When planting tapeworms, it must be remembered that for their better perception there must be enough space, and the distance from the place from which the tapeworm is seen in the best perspective must be at least 2-3 plant heights. The plant should be decorative from early spring to late autumn, that is, it should have beautiful stems, leaves, flowers or fruits. It is better to choose plants with large single or small flowers, collected in dense large inflorescences. The color of flowers and leaves should be in harmony with the surrounding background, the background itself should be in very good condition, the lawn should be weed-free and neatly trimmed, shrubs, conifers should be well formed, not have dry and broken branches. The edge around the plants, it is better to mulch with peat, tree bark or chips, this gives the specimen plantings a special clarity.
Variants of using tapeworms in landscape compositions:
- solitaire - the main element focusing attention (volumetric dominant in space)
- specimen - accent (located in front of homogeneous dense plantings)
- solitaire - dismemberment of space (several picturesquely located trees are used)
- solitaire - increasing the decorativeness of the main element of the composition (increasing the steepness of the outcrop of the rock or giving the waterfall the impression of "wildness", etc.).
For gardens in a regular style, a plant with the correct symmetrical crown shape, planted along the main axis of the layout, is more suitable. To enhance the effect, the plant can be sheared, giving the crown a geometric shape (ball, pyramid, column, etc.). If the style of the garden is landscape, the shape of the crown of the tapeworm can be more natural, free.
To decorate the entrance or facade of the house, tapeworms are used - one or more decorative trees, shrubs or flowering plants that clearly stand out against the general background. They give the house a special splendor. As tapeworms can be silver spruce, catalpas, weeping willows, purple-leaved cherry plum.
Old trees (oaks, ash-trees, maples, lindens) will serve as a wonderful decoration if they have survived near the house. When choosing breeds for tapeworms, symbolism should also be taken into account. Silver fir trees or pyramidal poplars at the entrance to the administrative building give it the proper splendor and severity.
Classic tapeworms are pedunculate and red oaks, Siberian larch, black poplar, Siberian cedar (the diameter of the clearing is not less than 100-120 m) horse chestnut, Norway maple, common and blue spruce, thuja, common pine, Ussuri pear, weeping willow, heart-leaved linden , scumpia (glade diameter 50 m), cherry birch, Manchurian apricot, red-leaved cherry plum, apple ornamental forms, spherical willow, Tatar maple (glade diameter 20 m).
For small gardens, conical spruce, virgin and common juniper, conical and colored forms of western thuja, small-leaved hawthorn, panicle hydrangea, almond, three-lobed terry, mock-orange, Thunberg barberry, hybrid weigela, Wangutta spirea are suitable.
Quite tiny gardens will be decorated with a single-planted bush of a standard rose or lilac, varietal rhododendron, varietal cinquefoil of a shrub or dwarf form, mountain pine, western thuja or Canadian spruce. A plant planted alone should be beautiful, attract attention, stand out.
In the old days, they used this technique. In parks, several trees were sometimes planted at a very close distance from one another, over the years they grew together, forming a huge "bouquet" of trunks diverging in different directions, or vice versa, several trees were planted at a short distance from each other, and then spliced their tops in one. This is how living arches and tripods arose.
It is more difficult to choose a tapeworm from flower crops: among them one has to look for not only flowering flowers, but also those with decorative foliage. Among the owners of unusual inflorescences and leaves of an outlandish shape, many do not fit the definition of "stably decorative".
For example, the cultural delphinium loses its decorative effect after flowering, since it is necessary to cut off the faded inflorescence from it, and often all the foliage. True, by the fall, its beauty is restored again, it can even bloom again, but the temporary loss of a presentable appearance negates these advantages, making it difficult to use the delphinium as a tapeworm. Among perennial flowers and herbs for a single planting, it is better to choose elegant perennials of an architectural form.
Various types of miscanthus, buzulniks, hogweed, Spanish artichoke, aruncus (volzhanks), basilists, aconites, peonies, irises spuria and marsh, Japanese anemones, geleniums, delphiniums, dicenter, goldenrod, sunflower, black grass decorative, rudbeckia, roses, yucca, ash, eremurus, hosts, paniculata phlox, meadowsweet, asparagus, etc.
Of the annuals, these are castor bean, amaranth, cleoma, forest tobacco. From perennials that do not winter in the open field, you can choose tall varieties of cultural dahlia and Indian cannu. But it must be remembered that plants from the last two groups do not become decorative until the end of June. The advantage of herbaceous plants used as single plantings is their seasonal rather than permanent decorativeness. Experiment and go beyond traditional plantings, with the right choice you can admire beautiful tapeworms all year round.
All varieties are subdivided into sugar varieties, grown for tender, devoid of a leathery film of fruits - shelling, cultivated for tender grains and semi-sugar, which at a young age do not have a leathery-fibrous layer in the bean valves and the whole bean is used for food together with the valves. With age, this layer appears in the places where the valves are attached.
According to the grain structure, hulling varieties are divided into smooth-grain and cerebral varieties, which are distinguished by a higher sugar content (up to 8.7%). Brain varieties have folds on the surface of the grain that resemble the convolutions of the brain.
Sugar varieties: Zhegalova 112, Inexhaustible 195, Sugar brain 6, Sugar Brovtsina 28, De-Gr ass 68-28. Semi-sugar: Karaganda 1053.
Peeling: Vegetable 76, Excellent 240, Alpha, Early 301, Adagumsky, Viola, Voronezh green, Early mushroom 11, Emerald, Perfection 65-3, Jubilee 1512, Winner G-33, Skvirsky, July 38, Standard brain 3, Freedom 10 , Miracle of Kelvedon 1378. Varieties by maturity: early ripening (40-50 days before the first harvest), mid-ripening (50-65) and late-ripening (60-75).
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Peas are well absorbed by the body. It contains from 26 to 30% proteins, carotene, vitamins: A, B1, B2, C, E and PP.
Green pea - an excellent dietary product for metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Peas it grows and develops best at a temperature of 17-20 ° C, and at the same time it is one of the most cold-resistant vegetable crops (tolerates frosts up to 4 ° C). At high temperatures and dry air, fruit set is suspended. Dislikes peas and damp, rainy weather. Light sandy soils, as well as swampy and acidic soils, are of little use. The best are loamy and sandy loam.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
The best predecessors are pumpkin, cucumber, cabbage, tomato, beet, sunflower, corn. Peas should return to their original place no earlier than after 4-5 years.Well-rotted manure or compost (4-5 kg / m 2) is applied to the area allotted for this culture. Potash fertilization is effective - 13-15 g / m 2. Peas need small doses of nitrogen fertilizers (2 g / m 2). Phosphoric ones are applied together with sowing seeds in rows at a dose of 5-7 g per 1 running meter. m. It is best to add ammophos: it contains, in addition to phosphorus, a small amount of nitrogen, and then there is no need to add this element separately.
In our zone, sowing begins in the second or third decade of April. If the spring is early and dry, then the seeds are planted to a depth of 6-8 cm, in more arid regions - by 8-9 cm if the soil is heavy - 3-5 cm. The seeds are sown in a belt way. The distance between the rows in the tape is 15 cm, and between the tapes is 45 cm. The seeds are laid out at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. When the plants reach a height of 7-10 cm, it is necessary to set the stakes on the sides and stretch 5-6 rows of twine and wire horizontally. This will provide good support for the culture. As a support, you can use: net, stakes, branches left after pruning fruit trees, etc.
As peas - a moisture-loving culture, then, mulching crops with peat, straw, sawdust or black plastic wrap, it is possible to reduce water loss, as well as suppress the growth of weeds. After harvesting, the stems and green mass should be carefully embedded in the soil as a valuable green fertilizer.
Vegetable peas are very decorative and are widely used for vertical gardening.
It is grown to produce green pods and sweet peas. Sow in well-heated, humus-rich, light, neutral soil. In the spring, complex fertilizer is embedded in the soil. To protect the plants from lodging, as a result of which they can be damaged by slugs and diseases, stakes are stuck near them, along which the ropes are pulled.
Peas need soil moisture during flowering and pod formation. Conversely, an excess of moisture before flowering is undesirable - the plants grow poorly, develop, and the yield decreases.
Peas are high-calorie vegetables. Semi-sugar, shelling and sugar varieties are grown. And in terms of ripening - superearly, early and late.
Semi-sugar peas are grown for the purpose of obtaining green pods, which are eaten whole, or unripe flat seeds. In a mature and dry state, its seeds are strongly shriveled. Unripe grains of shelling varieties are sweet and large. Ripe seeds retain their round shape when dry. Sugar peas are grown for their green, tender, juicy pods. They are eaten fresh and canned. It can be frozen. But the fresh peas have the highest taste qualities. And this is because the sugar content of the plucked peas immediately begins to drop. Milk peas are boiled for 3-5 minutes in a little water. It can be flavored by adding a few mint leaves or another spice to the water. It is used in salads, first and second courses.
TO YOUR TABLE
Green pea and fresh unripe beans are used in salads, vinaigrettes, side dishes, cold snacks. Soups, mashed potatoes, cereals, canned food, etc. are prepared from ripe seeds. A favorite dish is canned green peas. The canning procedure at home is not always successful. But peas can be easily prepared without canning: soak dry grains of vegetable peas for a day, and then boil them in salted water, add citric acid or vinegar, as well as spices.
Green pea puree soup. 500 g of green peas, a little green salad and spinach, 1 teaspoon of butter, salt, spices to taste. Cook the peas with chopped lettuce and spinach in a sealed container over low heat for 45 minutes. When the peas are softened, rub all the vegetables through a sieve, add the broth and let it boil, stirring so that it does not burn. Before serving, season with butter and put 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons of whole green peas.
A blooming garden is always inspiring.
But when choosing the types of flowers, I want to plant those that, in addition to visual beauty, would be easy to care for, so that this blooming beauty does not take away the strength of the hostess with exhausting procedures for caring for the flower garden.
The Surfinia flower is just such a plant that combines external amazing beauty, tenderness with ease of cultivation and care. Let's take a closer look at this beautiful representative of the flora.
The Surfinia flower is a hybrid of everyone's favorite petunia.
For more than two decades, it has occupied a leading place in floriculture among ampelous plants, which are designed to give beauty on terraces, recreation areas, and decorate squares and gardens.
If passing by any terrace, you will see a pots with a luxurious cap of bright flowers, exuding a pleasant light aroma - this is most likely surfiniya.
Long shoots of the plant are abundantly, along the entire length, decorated with a cascade of bright, varied colors of buds.
The flowering period lasts from the beginning of summer until the first hard cold weather. Flowers in the form of small gramophones can be of various colors - from snow-white to maroon.
Many novice florists are wondering what is the difference between Surfinia and Petunia. To answer this question, we can say that the hybrid has surpassed its mother plant.
Despite the fact that surfinia is one of the varieties of petunia, it has a higher growth rate, allowing it to form an adult, sprawling bush within a few months after planting.
The flowering period is much longer than that of petunia, and it is also endowed with high resistance to diseases, pests, and weather conditions.
Surfinia at home can propagate by seed or vegetative (cuttings) method. Both methods are quite effective and give good results.
A greater percentage of similarity is in freshly harvested seeds that have not been stored for a long time. The longer the seeds are stored, the lower the percentage of their germination will be. This should be taken into account when buying, self-collecting seed. You can buy surfiniya seeds in specialized stores, whose reputation you trust. Seeds are planted in late February, early March in containers.
Before planting, a soil mixture is prepared (peat mixed with sand). The soil should be well-drained, air-permeable, and water-free. The bottom of the container must be covered with a drainage layer.
Surfinia seeds are carefully spread on the pre-moistened soil. Sowing is not covered with a layer of soil, but immediately with a glass cover. During the germination of the seeds, it is necessary to regularly ventilate and moisturize the planting.
For moistening, it is better to use a sprayer - this will not make unnecessary depressions in the soil, it will prevent the seedlings from washing out.
The container is kept in a warm, well-lit place, avoiding direct sunlight. The first shoots appear within a few weeks. The protective cap is removed, and the formed root system is covered with a small layer of calcined sand. As the seedlings grow, sand is poured several times.
Surfinia saplings, which have grown two strong leaves, are transplanted into separate containers. For intensive growth of seedlings, good lighting and regular moisture should be provided. After the appearance of several strong leaves, the procedure for pinching the tip of the shoot is carried out.
This promotes the development of lateral shoots, which makes the bush more luxuriant, more branched. Top dressing with potash fertilizers during the development of the seedling is carried out regularly, twice a month. This makes it possible to get stronger shoots, promotes intensive growth.
Grown up surfinia seedlings are planted in open ground in May, when the ground warms up enough, there is no risk of morning frost.
Surfinia cuttings are best harvested in the fall, after the end of the flowering period. A well-developed shoot is used as a cutting, from which the upper part is cut off with a length of about 10-15 cm. The shoot goes deeper into the prepared soil mixture, covered with a protective cap.
For fast rooting, the lower part of the shoot can be treated with a special solution that stimulates the development of the rhizome. By regularly ventilating and moisturizing, the shoot will take root within a couple of weeks. The cap is removed after the appearance of new leaves, and the plant continues to develop in a lighted, warm (more than 20 degrees) room.
After the onset of a warm spring, the newly formed bush is suitable for transplanting into a flower garden.
Before transplanting, the seedling should be slightly hardened. To do this, within a couple of days it is taken out into the garden for several hours, where it will grow in the future. It is better to transplant the plant into a soil mixture of the same composition in which the seedling grew.
The transplant must be done very carefully, young shoots are quite vulnerable, they can be damaged. It is not recommended to unnecessarily deepen the bush into the ground, this slows down its growth.
When transplanting, it is not necessary to rid the rhizome of the soil in which it grew, it is better to transplant it by the "transfer" method from one container to another.
To ensure good development, flowering, the plant needs good lighting, in partial shade it blooms less, shoots are stretched, deformed, and quickly fades in the scorching sun. You should also protect it from strong gusts of wind, which can damage the branches. Place the container or landing on the leeward side - this will save the landing from strong winds.
The soil must be well-drained and moisture-permeable. Excessive moisture in the soil leads to decay of the roots; in this case, it is almost impossible to save the plant. The plant adapts well to any fertile soil, but a sandy component is desirable.
When used as a container flower for decorating a terrace, other recreation areas, it is better to plant it in a spacious pot. This will make it possible to fully develop the root system.
For abundant flowering of Surfinia, you should regularly feed the bush with potash fertilizers. Twice a month they are brought into the ground together with watering. Water for irrigation should be settled, warm. When watering with cold water, the buds can suddenly fall off, flowering will stop.
During flowering, it is also necessary to regularly clean the bush, while removing faded inflorescences, damaged shoots.
Perennial specimens are stored in a warm room in winter. Winter watering is significantly reduced, and shoots are almost completely cut off. Large branches about 10-15 cm long remain.
Closer to spring, with an increase in the amount of daylight, the plant gradually wakes up.
Watering during this period increases, a fertilization system is introduced, which, as a result, guarantees a large, lush bush.
Subject to the rules of care, the Surfinia flower is quite resistant to the appearance of various diseases, the invasion of parasites. At the same time, excessive moisture in the soil can contribute to the rotting of the surfinia root, which is detrimental to the flower. Sometimes shoots are exposed to late blight, the fight against which consists in treating the bush with preparations containing copper.
Of the pests, the most dangerous is the spider mite, which affects all parts of the flower. The fight against it consists in observing the rules of care, processing with a solution of soap or drugs of the acaricidal series.
The flower shape is specially developed for container decoration of recreation areas, terraces, gardens and alleys. Bright flowers will also blend well with other crops in complex beds.
The Surfinia ampelous flower has more than twenty species, which differ in the color range of buds, the length of the shoots. The most popular varieties are presented in our selection:
Every gardener will delight with juicy and ripe eggplants, the cultivation and care in the greenhouse of which are discussed in detail in our material. We will tell you about the rules for preparing the soil and planting seedlings, and about the features of caring for the crop so that you can grow an excellent harvest.
Shrub up to 3.5 meters high with gray bark, sagging thin branches and thorns. It has small fruits up to 1.5 centimeters in diameter, which are not recommended to be consumed raw.
Eggplant (Latin Solanum melongena) is a tasty but rather demanding vegetable to care for. It also has a scientific name - Dark-fruited nightshade and a folk name - blue. For a grower who has not yet experienced planting and caring for this crop, it is important to know how to properly grow eggplants in a greenhouse. If watering norms are not followed, or the temperature is incorrect, the plant will not bear fruit, or even die.
We offer a description of several of the most beautiful varieties: