Well, now everything is clear what happened to my currant bush. It is a pity that I did not carry out the processing in the fall.
The task of any farmer and gardener is to maximize the use of agricultural land and obtain an extremely high yield. Nevertheless, the dangers that lie in wait for the workers of the fields, gardeners and gardeners, there are a great many. A huge number of pests and weeds can nullify all efforts, destroying excellent varieties of vegetables, winter and ornamental crops, fruits.
The most popular weapon in the fight against weeds is herbicides. It is currently the most reliable plant protection, which reliably protects crops from various types of weeds. There are two types of herbicides: continuous and selective. The former are used where it is necessary to destroy all weeds and where agricultural crops are not cultivated (these are forest clearings, road shoulders, industrial facilities). The second type of herbicide is selective, it is used only in agriculture, it is also called "chemical" weeding.
In the list of products of our online store of seeds for plant protection includes insecticides, which are chemicals aimed at destroying insect pests. The Internet-shop of seeds "Suchasna Dacha" offers high-quality means of protecting agricultural crops from arthropod pests. The use of safe natural materials in the technological process of manufacturing insecticides reduces the risk of their use to almost zero. That is, when used correctly, drugs are not dangerous to people or plants.
Protective agents of plants against fungal infections and pathogens of various diseases include fungicides, they are capable of destroying the pathogen entirely or restraining its development. Fungicides, by the nature of their effect, are divided into protective and therapeutic. The former are capable of destroying only germinating spores of fungi on the plant, while the latter can defeat the pathogen before the first symptoms of the disease appear. There are also fungicides, dressing agents, with which the seed is treated.
The drugs are divided into 3 large groups:
Also, all drugs are contact and systemic.
Plant protection products are with a broad spectrum of action and narrow focus.
Most insecticides are divided into 2 large groups:
Most fungicides are also divided into 2 large groups:
Therefore, for example, a preparation with a sulfur content suppresses powdery mildew well, but it is almost useless to use it against phytophthora. Although there are also universal drugs.
The main way to protect trees in spring is to spray them with pesticides or products prepared according to folk recipes. Small trees and seedlings can be treated with homemade spray guns or fine-hole watering cans.
A ladder is installed next to the tree, the solution is poured into a watering can, the tree is sprayed from above. For high drainage, it is better to use a spray bottle with a long holder. There are general rules that must be followed:
When working with aqueous solutions, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment:
These funds cannot be neglected so as not to get chemical burns to the eyes and skin. Chemical solutions can also cause allergic complications.
The second spray is called the green cone spray. Already from the name it is clear that it is carried out after the buds of the plant begin to develop and protrude in the form of green, still tightly coiled cones. The expanding buds become vulnerable to strong solutions, in fact, as well as surviving and revived pests and diseases.
What to use? You can use the same Bordeaux liquid, but in a much lower concentration - 1%. But, in my opinion, it is much more effective to use modern drugs, and to prepare the so-called "tank mix" from them. This means that in the same bucket of water, you can mix two different drugs: one for disease control and one for pest control.
For example, you can mix "Horus" (for scab, powdery mildew, moniliosis) and "Aktara" or "Decis" (insecticides). There are other options, the main thing is to carefully study the instructions, whether they are suitable for mixing with other drugs and whether there are any restrictions on air temperature. The use of preparations in the form of tank mixtures allows to reduce the number of treatments. Instead of separate control (first with pests, and then with diseases), you carry out one complex treatment. I hope you will do less harm to the environment.
The use of chemical plant protection products in garden plots must be very skillful and careful.
The methods of protecting plants from diseases and pests are being improved from year to year. Today, there are several main types of plant protection from diseases and pests, which many amateur gardeners use in practice.
In the methods of protecting plants from pests and diseases, several groups can be distinguished: agrotechnical, physical-mechanical, chemical and biological control methods.
TO agrotechnical methods the correct selection and preparation of a site for laying a garden, the cultivation and use of healthy planting material, the spatial isolation of crops that have common pests, tillage, fertilization, correct pruning, the use of resistant varieties, etc. Careful soil cultivation destroys the habitats of many harmful insects, their wintering conditions deteriorate. Timely sowing provides the most favorable conditions for seed germination and plant development, which makes them more resistant to damage.
The use of crop rotation with the necessary spatial isolation of crops in a number of cases excludes the possibility of their damage, since insects adapted to feeding on certain plants die from lack of food when changing crops. The correct diet promotes good growth and development of plants, increases their resistance to many pests. The destruction of weeds, which are food for many pests, the removal of dead branches, the cleaning of dead bark on fruit trees, and timely watering largely prevent the massive accumulation of pests.
Physical and mechanical methods - this is burning dried, damaged branches, eggs of some pests (for example, unpaired and ringed silkworms), shaking off beetles (apple blossom beetle), using trapping belts against the moth, collecting carrion, cleaning boles from old, dead bark and whitewashing them with lime milk, removing and burning of wintering nests of hawthorn and goldtail, etc.
TO preventive measures plant protection includes rational crop rotation, selection of resistant varieties, systematic weed control (common vectors of diseases and pests), harvesting plant residues, liming acidic soils, creating optimal conditions for plant development during the growing season, immediate burning of diseased leaves or whole plants , collection and destruction of pests. Of great importance is the preparation of seeds and soil for sowing, maintaining optimal growing conditions, ventilation and aeration of greenhouse structures, watering plants with warm water (not lower than 20 ° C), correct formation of plants, and maintenance of the soil in a loose state. In greenhouses, it is necessary to alternate crops annually (cucumber - tomato), remove the top 5 cm layer of soil, after 2-3 years it is desirable to change the soil. If it is not possible to replace it, it is necessary to disinfect it 15-20 days before planting the plants. To do this, use 1% solutions of Bordeaux liquid or potassium permanganate, 3% nitrophene, 0.4% solution of copper sulfate (5-6 liters of solution are consumed per 1 m 2).
Chemical methods are in the use of various poisons - pesticides for pest control. They require special knowledge, since the inept use of toxic substances can cause poisoning of people, the death of beneficial insects, as well as contamination of the environment with poisons (soil, plants, water, etc.). One of the ways to reduce the use of pesticides is the use of biological, agrotechnical and other environmentally friendly methods of crop protection.
Currently, much attention is paid to biological methods plant protection, safe for humans and farm animals. They include various methods and techniques of using living organisms (parasitic and predatory insects, ticks, microorganisms, as well as insectivorous birds, mammals, etc.).
This is the main method of pest and disease control in vegetables and potatoes. However, its use often contributes to the accumulation of harmful substances in products, deterioration of sanitary and hygienic conditions in protected ground structures, increased death of bees and other beneficial insects, as well as to the threat of contamination of soils and water sources with pesticides.
The use of chemical plant protection products in garden plots must be very skillful and careful. The necessary time should be observed from the moment of using the drug to eating fruits and vegetables. This is especially important since people in the garden are in direct contact with the plants treated with chemicals and often taste different fruits directly from the garden or bush. Therefore, the use of plant protection chemicals should be limited to a minimum. In addition, it is desirable to use low-toxic drugs (exclude chemical agents of I and II toxicity classes). On the other hand, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures, apply mechanical means of combating diseases and pests. It is advisable that the owners of the sites, when choosing means and methods of plant protection, seek the advice of specialists.
Preventive measures requiring the use of chemicals are seed dressing, disinfection of soil, equipment and implements used for growing plants, soaking the roots of seedlings immediately before planting them in a slurry of clay and cow dung with the addition of topsin M (25 g per 1 liter of slurry) , mixing the soil used for growing seedlings with basudin (1 kg per 1 m 2 of land).
Below are the chemical remedies for most types of vegetable crops that do not require a long aging period. These include fungicides (Bordeaux liquid and Ditan M 45) insecticides - liquid ovadophos (0.15%) liquid karbofos (0.3-0.4%). It is not recommended to pollinate plants in small areas.
In vegetable gardens, you can often find the larvae of various beetles, wireworms and scoops, which are very harmful. To destroy them, in the spring, before sowing or planting plants, sprinkle 10% basudin (40-80 g per 10 m 2) on the soil surface (40-80 g per 10 m 2) and mix it with the soil to a depth of 10-20 cm (against scoops - by 20 cm).
When working with chemicals, consider the following:
It is forbidden to work with pesticides for children, pregnant or lactating women, as well as persons suffering from tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, disorders of the nervous system.
Biological protection is the use of various entomophagous organisms to combat plant pests. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, roundworms, fish, birds, mammals, and most often insects are used as entomophages. The biological method of combating plant pathogens is safe for humans and warm-blooded animals. It is based on the fact that due to the antagonistic relationship of some microorganisms, one species suppresses the vital activity of another. The largest number of antagonist microbes is concentrated in the soil, which is important for its health and protection of plants from harmful infection, if you use plants specially selected for mixed plantings or as precursors and intermediate crops. So, more antagonist microbes accumulate in the soil if you sow legumes and legumes or plants such as marigolds, coriander, nettle, mint, caraway seeds, basil, celandine, etc.A similar effect is exerted by the introduction of crushed parts of these plants or a water extract from them into the infected soil.
It is very important that the biological method of plant protection is valid for many years. Over time, the number of pests decreases, their reproduction slows down. In order to increase the number of entomophages in nature, favorable conditions are created for them. For cows, egg-eaters, they arrange or protect shelters for wintering, sow fodder plants (mustard, buckwheat, phacelia, sweet lupine), plant the testes of carrots, dill, onions, etc. These plants lengthen the life span and increase the fertility of many parasites and predators.
Microorganisms are also used against pests of agricultural plants - pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses), for example: the bacterial preparation entobacterin. With its help, you can successfully fight almost all caterpillars of butterflies that damage the leaves of fruit, berry and vegetable plants. Of the mushroom preparations, boverin is used against the Colorado potato beetle, the parasitic mushroom Ashersonia against the whitefly. The viral drug virin is very effective against caterpillars that damage forest trees. The working concentration of the biological product solution is 0.5-1% (50-100 g per 10 l of water). Bacterial preparations are harmless to humans, beneficial insects, plants and farm animals. Beneficial microorganisms are also used against fungal plant diseases. For example, to combat powdery mildew of some plants, the infusion of cow dung or rotten hay is quite successfully used. In the infusions, bacteria develop that feed on powdery mildew mycelium.
For some types of pests, special synthetic substances have been created. Baits based on the attraction of males and females are especially effective. They find practical use in traps for the extermination of harmful insects. Insectivorous birds, such as tits, flycatchers, starlings, play an important role in protecting plants from insect pests.
Popular practice recommends the following methods of preventing various diseases of vegetable crops. Mint in the garden suppresses the development of Fusarium pathogens. Crushed mint (0.5-1% of the soil volume) has a similar effect on highly contaminated soil. By introducing oil radish and especially white mustard and spring rape into the crop rotation, you will decontaminate the soil. Spring rape and white mustard are sown in early spring in rows every 15 cm to a depth of 2-4 cm (yield - 10-30 kg of seeds per one hundred square meters).
The smell of many plants is not pleasant to pests and pathogens of vegetables and potatoes. It has been noticed that hemp protects potatoes and tomatoes from late blight, repels pests from beets, turnips, radishes, radishes. The Colorado potato beetle does not like the smell of beans, beans, dill and marigolds, which also repels wireworms. Medvedka cannot stand the smell of calendula, garlic, parsley, fresh alder branches.
It is advisable to combine the cultivation of plants that repel pests. So, an onion fly affects onions less if carrots are planted between its rows, and potatoes in a row. With cabbage crops, it is good to plant basil, celery, garlic, which scare away the cabbage scoop. Calendula repels many pests; onion aromatic herbs, garlic, parsnips - weevils, carrot flies, ticks, wireworm onions - aphids, fleas of common tansy - many pests (you need to plant it between bushes). Seeds and dried stems of coriander scare away mice, woodlice beans, peas, beans - moles, wireworms. Marigolds clear the soil of nematodes. The leaves and stems of the chrysanthemum, buried in the ground, scare away the bear. A number of vegetable beds can be planted with onions.
Against many diseases and pests of vegetables, you can use spraying with herbal decoctions and infusions, as well as use other herbal remedies, the action of which is very effective. So, against whiteflies, thrips and aphids, infusions of tops of nightshade crops, leaves or roots of dandelion, celandine, tobacco (makhorka), onion husks, heads of garlic, horse sorrel, burdock are good. Against caterpillars on cabbage, radishes, radishes, turnips, infusions and decoctions of yarrow, burdock (burdock), hot pepper, chopped tops or stepchildren of tomatoes, potatoes, nightshade, physalis, mustard, ash are used. Against spider mites in greenhouses, plants need to be systematically moistened with water and sprayed with infusions or decoctions of nightshade crops tops, garlic and onion husks, chamomile, yarrow, garlic or onions, tobacco dust and slaked lime. Increases the resistance of plants to diseases by treating them with an aqueous extract of stinging nettle collected in spring. It is equally possible to use the extract from both fresh and dry nettles. An extract from sphagnum moss, infused at room temperature for 6 days, is good against root rot. The introduction of post-harvest lettuce and dandelion residues into the soil prevents the development of fusarium rot on vegetable plants grown in greenhouses, especially on steam-sterilized soils.
Tobacco used against flea beetles, bedbugs, sawflies, caterpillars, scale insects, spider mites, aphids and other sucking pests.
- Broth: tobacco raw materials are poured with water in a ratio of 1:10 and boiled for 30 minutes, defended for a day, filtered before spraying, diluted with water 1: 3 and added 40 g of laundry soap per 10 liters of solution.
- A decoction of tobacco with onion peel: 200 g of raw tobacco and 200 g of onion husks are boiled for 30 minutes in 2-3 liters of water, cooled, diluted with water to 10 liters, soap is added and filtered.
- Infusion: the raw material is poured with water (1:10), infused at a temperature of 25-30 ° C for 24 hours, stirring systematically before use, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3.
A mixture of tobacco dust with ash or lime in equal proportions is used for pollination at the rate of 30-40 g per 1 m 2.
Tansy - an active insecticide, used to combat moth, aphids, glassworm, gooseberry moth, apple and pear moth.
- Broth: 1 kg of dried green raw materials are boiled in 10 liters of water over low heat for 1-2 hours, defended, filtered, 40 g of laundry soap is added.
- Infusion: 200 g of dry raw materials per 10 liters of water are boiled for 30 minutes, then infused for 1-2 days before use for spraying, filter and add soap.
- Tansy Powder used for pollination of affected plants. Freshly plucked inflorescences and leaves are good for repelling mosquitoes: bundles are laid out or hung indoors, rubbed with greens on open areas of the body.
Hot pepper used against various types aphids, bedbugs, whitefly caterpillars, scoop, moth, raspberry and strawberry weevil, scale insects, sawfly, flea beetles.
Infusion: 100 g of dry pods or 250 g of fresh pods are poured into 2 liters of water, boiled for 1 hour and insisted for 2 days, the pepper is ground, squeezed, the solution is filtered. Before bud break, the plants are treated with a solution with the addition of water (1:20) and laundry soap, after bud break, the treatment is done with a weaker solution (1:40 or 1:50).
Needle infusion (coniferous concentrate) with wormwood, pharmacy chamomile with the addition of soap helps to fight all pests of the garden and vegetable garden. They need to be processed before flowering, during the period of swelling of the buds, when an ovary appears.
Infusion of stepsons and tomato leaves: Grind 4 kg of stepchildren and tomato leaves in a bucket of water, leave for 4 hours, boil for 30 minutes, cool and pour into a bowl, you can store for a long time. Before use, dilute 2 times, add 40 g of soap and spray the plants.
Bitter wormwood decoction used against leaf-gnawing beetles: 1 kg of green mass is boiled for 10-15 minutes in a small amount of water, cooled, filtered, added up to 10 liters of water with an interval of 7 days, sprayed plants.
Infusions and decoctions from vegetable raw materials often contain toxic substances, so care must be taken when using them. To increase the wettability of the treated plants, solutions are prepared with the addition of laundry soap. Soap (40 g) is diluted in a small volume of water and poured into the prepared solution before spraying. Vegetables are eaten no earlier than 10 days after processing.
It is often useful to treat areas and plants with various mixtures. - ash, lime, plant residues. So, cruciferous fleas (usually there are many of them in hot dry weather on cabbage and radishes) do not like it when plants are pollinated early in the morning by dew with a mixture of ash or slaked lime and tobacco dust (1: 1). You can take 1 kg of ash, boil in 10 liters of water for 5 minutes, strain, add up to 10 liters of water, leave for a day, add soap and spray the plants. Fresh alder branches can be laid out in the row spacing. After 10-12 hours, branches with insects are collected and burned. Against the onion fly, the aisles are sprinkled with ash, the seedlings are watered with an infusion of wood ash (a liter can of ash is insisted for a day in 10 liters of hot water) or a solution of sodium chloride (one glass of salt per 10 liters of water).
To combat the Colorado potato beetle when planting potatoes, one handful of ash is added to the holes; when hilling, one handful around the bush. A week after hilling, the plants are sprayed with an ash-and-soap solution. To prepare it, take 1 kg of ash, boil for 15 minutes in 3 liters of water, dilute with water to 10 liters, close, insist for 2 days, filter, add again up to 10 liters of water, a soap solution (40 g) and spray the plants. Spraying is repeated after 2-3 weeks. During flowering through dew or after rain, potatoes are dusted with ash.
If there are a lot of ladybugs, hoverflies, ichneumon flies, ground beetles and other beneficial insects in the garden, you can not be afraid of the invasion of aphids, worms, scoops, ticks and other pests. To attract beneficial insects, grow dill, cilantro, watercress, testes of onions, carrots, parsley, celery, and nectar plants on the site. To attract tits, starlings, flycatchers, wagtails and other birds to the gardens, arrange artificial nests - birdhouses, nest boxes. For this, a hedge of well-branching shrubs is suitable.
During the flowering period, garden processing is prohibited for pink buds
At the stage of bud extension, it is important to insure the garden from the attack of the apple moth, apple blossom beetle, apple moth, leaf rollers, aphids, scale insects, from scab and spotting developing during this period.
The universal drug that gardeners trust is Karbofos. It is an insecticide (against insects) and acaricide (against ticks) in one bottle. It affects the caterpillars of the apple moth, causes the death of aphids, sawflies, spider mites, and weevils. It is produced in different forms, on the basis of which a solution is prepared (70 g per 10 l of water). Processing features: it is used immediately after breeding, carefully treating each leaf and flower buds.
Another preparation for the treatment of gardens is Tiovit Jet. It has fungicidal activity and at the same time is an acaricide. On its basis, a suspension is prepared, which is well adhered to the treated surface. Tiovit Jet destroys fungal infections and acts on pests, causing disruption of vital processes. Suitable for soil disinfection in the trunk circle.
The flowering period coincides with the appearance of bud mites. If they are found on fruit trees, then they are treated with colloidal sulfur. For this, the ready-made 70% paste is taken in an amount of 80 g and dissolved in 10 liters of soap solution. A high-quality, single spraying is enough to destroy the kidney mite.
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