Peonies are wonderful perennial flowers that will undoubtedly become a decoration for your garden. It is not for nothing that peony flowers are very popular among gardeners, since they are unpretentious in care and cultivation, and they will delight you with their beautiful flowers for 15-20 years. Peonies have been growing in one place for many years and do not require transplanting.
The way we care for peonies directly affects their flowering, life time and decorativeness. Peony care includes weeding, loosening the soil, and regular watering. The peony takes root well on loamy, loose soil. Heavy soil requires deep cultivation (50-60 cm), followed by the addition of sand, compost, peat and humus. Peonies need light partial shade, but in general, the site should be sunny, without waterlogged soil - excessive moisture is detrimental to the peony.
Peonies are propagated mainly by seedlings of a certain variety. They should be immediately identified in some place, since the plant does not like transplants very much - it can stop blooming for several years. A flower transplant involves dividing the rhizome, but not earlier than after 10-15 years. Peony is a very fragile plant, so all processes are done as carefully as possible.
You need to plant or transplant peonies only in the fall. Planting is best done at the end of August or the beginning of September, so that the plant has time to take root in the cold. Sometimes planting is done in the spring. And only after 5 years you can divide the bushes.
The planting hole for a flower should be about 80 cm deep (no more than a meter), width - about 70 cm, since the peony with its roots penetrates quite deeply into the ground and they spread rather quickly. The fulfillment of such requirements ensures the growth of the plant over a long period. In the case of planting several bushes on a site, the gap between each should be about 1 meter. The prepared pit is filled with compost - no more than 3 buckets of pus, wood ash and superphosphate - 500 g, lime - up to 100 g. The mixture mixes well with the soil from the hole. The buds, after planting, should be at the level of the soil.
Manure is placed on the bottom of the pit, its dense ball is 10 cm. Then everything is covered with a 20 cm layer of earth, then the compaction stage follows. Then you need to pour the prepared soil with a mound and pour it thoroughly with water to compact everything well. A bush is placed in the middle of the mound so that the buds are flush with the edge of the pit. The roots should be covered with soil, filling all the void. After planting, the flower must certainly be watered.
If the peony bush has dropped and the buds are below the level of the hole, then it is necessary to carefully pull the plant up, sprinkling it with earth. A small mound is made over the base of the plant. It is important that the buds are deepened by no more than 2.5 cm, because if the planting is too deep, the peonies will not be able to bloom for a long time, and it happens that they will not bloom at all. In winter, when the soil freezes over, the planted peonies should be covered with dry leaves. In the spring, dry leaves and branches are carefully removed so as not to damage the young shoots.
Details about planting peonies
In the first summer, immediately after planting, the buds of the peonies are cut off so that flowering does not weaken the still weak bushes. In the second year, flowers are also partially removed. To make the flower large, the buds located on the sides are cut as early as possible. During the cutting of flowers, shoots with 4 leaves are left, otherwise the flowering of peonies the next year will be much weaker.
It is important to keep the soil in moderate humidity during the summer, especially in the first year after transplanting. Fertilizer is applied only 2 years after planting. Fall or early spring is good for sprinkling a bucket of compost on the bushes. During the growing season, it is advised to use a full range of mineral fertilizers (100 grams per square meter).
Peonies can be quickly propagated not only by dividing seedlings, but also by other methods. In the spring, after the snow has melted, renewal buds are used for reproduction, they are located directly near the root. It is necessary to separate the buds from the ground, cut them off together with the young adventitious roots and part of the stem. Only half of all kidneys are trimmed. The cut buds are planted in a prepared mixture - sand, humus, turf soil. The top of the kidneys should be at ground level.
Rooting mode of bushes: air humidity - 80-90%, temperature - 18-20 degrees. Rooting is complete in about 40 days. Kidney cuttings, which are cut at the very end of July - early August, also take root well. The buds are cut with a small part of the root (3 to 5 cm). Then the base of the bush is covered with new soil. A full flowering peony bush is formed over 3-4 years.
If reproduction is done by layering, then the grown stems are treated with a solution that includes peat, deciduous soil and sand. The mound should be 30-35 cm high. This procedure is done in the spring. You can put a box on a peony bush without a bottom, the dimensions of which are 50x50x35 cm.When the stem begins to grow, it must be filled with a mixture as it grows. It should be slightly damp all the time. In late autumn, the hardened stems are cut close to the ground and planted separately.
They also use stem cuttings. They should be prepared even before the beginning of the flowering period (late May - early June). They are used from the middle region of the sprout so that each stalk has two internodes. The leaves of the upper internodes are cut to a third of the length, and the lower leaves are cut off completely. The cuttings are planted in a box filled with pre-washed sand. Planting depth - from 2.5 to 3.5 cm. For 14 days, the cuttings should be in the shade, ventilated and kept in conditions of increased moisture. As a rule, only half of the cuttings are hardened.
When dividing large bushes, there will always be broken rhizomes without visible buds. But there are also dormant buds, so the broken roots do not need to be thrown away. The damaged areas are cut with a sharp knife, the roots are cut into pieces, each about 6-7 cm long. The cut parts are powdered with charcoal, dried and planted at a shallow depth. The ground should be moist when disembarking. Some roots will sprout in the second year.
Also, peonies can be propagated by seeds. Sowing is usually done in early autumn. For these purposes, a room room or a sand box located in the greenhouse room is used. The temperature regime for the content is + 15-20 degrees. After 35-40 days, when the first roots appear, the container with the sown seeds should be transferred to a place where it is not more than 1-5 degrees Celsius. You can also bury the roots directly into the snow, and after 2 weeks they are again placed in greenhouse conditions, where the first shoots will appear soon. The sand must be kept in a state of constant moisture. You can sow directly into open ground immediately after the seeds are ripe. The plant emerges in May. This method has a low seed germination rate, in contrast to the first option. Peonies bloom only in the fourth or even the fifth year after planting.
Many flower growers often have a question: why do not peonies bloom? The reasons are very different: an old bush, a flower planted too deeply, the need for a transplant, a young bush and it is too early for it to bloom, too acidic or over-fertilized soil, dry soil, the buds froze in winter, the flower suffered during spring frosts, the plant got sick.
The most common flower disease is gray mold. It is facilitated by rain, wind, warm damp weather, ants in buds. The first sign of the disease is the sudden wilting of the stems. With a strong defeat by gray rot, the bushes simply disintegrate. To avoid problems, you need to adhere to the correct agricultural techniques. Diseased flowers should be watered in the spring and sprayed with organic fungicides during the growing season. It is also recommended to sprinkle wood ash around the peonies, about 200 grams per square meter.
Erin Benzakane is a florist and entrepreneur behind the Flower Farm in Washington's Skagit Valley. There she grows, teaches and shares the beauty of flowers with people from all over the world, being the leader of the field-vase movement. In her new book, Growing Flowers, she details how to grow and harvest beautiful flowers, including one of her favorites, peonies. Below is an excerpt.
Few flowers can rival the ultimate spring queen, the peony. Their large flower heads and wavy, ruffled flowers form a dizzying array of pink, coral, cranberry, white, yellow and red flowers. Many carry a sweet scent, and most of them persist in the vase. Unsurprisingly, they are our most requested flowers for weddings and special events.
Besides being very popular and excellent in a vase, peonies are very easy to grow. They are divided into two different groups: herbaceous and woody peonies. The first group is most often grown in gardens. Plants are easy to obtain, thrive in almost any climate, and can live for over 100 years if properly cared for. The foliage appears in early spring and flowers are borne on the growth of the new season. In late autumn, the foliage dies back to the ground. It is best to wait 2-3 years before harvesting a newly planted peony, otherwise you may affect future growth. During this time, it is difficult to resist the urge to pick flowers, but the benefit will be a fully mature plant that will reward you with years of flowering.
How many days peonies bloom.
Unfortunately, for a very short time - no more than ten days, and usually about five, if you take a separate variety, but this applies to a specific flower - peonies constantly release new buds and ten days of flowering of the bush will be provided to you. However, if you like exactly peonies, and you cannot but like it, then you can plant several varieties and the flowering will stretch for almost a month. From the third decade of May to the end of June.
So plant peonies, the first huge flowers to bloom, of a variety of colors.
The earliest bloom in a rich burgundy color. Then the snowy white blooms with cranberry red in the center of the flower - very similar to the rose cake, which I liked so much as a child.
Peonies of amazing beauty delight their owners from late May to mid-June. Huge bright flowers of various colors look great against the background of dark green leaves.
The flowering period of peonies depends on the weather conditions in the region and on the variety of plants, but on average, peonies can bloom from 8 to 20 days. In order to extend the flowering period, varieties that differ in flowering times are usually planted on the site.
By flowering time peonies are divided into:
Terry peonies bloom longer than their simple counterparts: the average flowering time is 15 to 18 days. Semi-double varieties bloom profusely on average for 12-14 days, and ordinary non-double peonies delight with their flowering only 6-10 days.
I have been growing peonies for many years, so I know how many days peonies bloom. I have several bushes with different colors of petals. The very first to bloom are maroon, cherry-colored peonies, which are popularly called "stone head". They bloom from the twenties of May to early June. They bloom for a week. In early June, luxurious pink peonies bloom. They bloom for about a week too. In the first decade of June, snow-white peonies finally bloom. I know a little secret so that they bloom better: at the budding stage, I cut off small buds, and leave only large ones. As a result, luxurious flowering is ensured. If the weather is dry and there are no torrential rains with the wind, then peonies bloom for up to ten days or more.
We can safely say that this beautiful flower does not bloom for more than one decade of a month, but this is ten days. By the way, this can be traced when the bouquets of peonies are sold on the market. They appear and disappear very quickly from the shelves, if you compare them with asters or gladioli.
They develop very quickly from the time the buds appear on them, and what a scent is worth, if you put a cut bouquet at home, that's another story. In my region, they appear at the end of May and can bloom in the first decade of June.
There is a terry kind of peonies, they bloom a little longer, up to fifteen days. A very beautiful flower with a huge color palette of buds.
Peonies bloom, long enough, if we compare the timing with flowers such as Irises or with Daylily common, one-day. The flowering process of Peonies is more protracted, since for a long time, you can observe the formation and growth of the bud itself. The opening of a flower, too, does not happen in one day. Before the Peony fully opens up and shows all its beauty, three more days pass, of course, depending on the weather conditions and on the type of flower. The flowering itself lasts about two weeks, plus or minus a couple of days. A little later, the lateral buds also grow and some also bloom. So we can safely talk about the approximate flowering time of about three weeks. And if you have planted different varieties of Peonies, then they will bloom with a time difference, which significantly increases the flowering time in general, the entire flower bed.
Classic variety with large bomb-shaped flowers. The main color is pink, at the base of the bomb there is a light rim. The flowering period is average. An excellent variety for collection and just for a flower bed
White-flowered peony (or Chinese)
White-flowered peony (or Chinese) is one of the most popular and beloved perennials, thanks to its shape, terry, and aroma of flowers. Most varieties come from the white-flowered peony.
The peony has several powerful thickened roots that turn into an underground stem, on which wintering buds are located. Stems are tall, leafy, up to 100 cm high, end with 2-5 flowers.
According to the type of flowers, peonies are divided into three types: simple - with large non-double flowers with numerous stamens and underdeveloped anthers semi-double - with a small number of petals and stamens in the flower double - flowers consist of a large number of petals. There are no stamens, they are reborn into petals. According to the arrangement of the petals, terry peonies are spherical, when the inner petals form a center slightly protruding above the protective outer petals, resembling a crown-shaped ball, when the inner narrow petals form a ring surrounded by wide outer protective rosy petals (the most beautiful shape), in which the outer and inner petals - wide, large, numerous - they rise in the flower in the same way and are compactly located. Strong stems of peonies have a height of 60-100 cm. Flowers 7-18 cm in diameter, stay in water for 5-8 days, most of the plants have a delicate aroma.
Chinese peony is very diverse in color. There are white-colored varieties (pure tones or with delicate crimson veins on the petals) and red-colored ones, differing in warmth and depth of tone. Early varieties of peonies bloom 2-3 weeks earlier than later ones. Previously, varieties with simple non-double flowers bloom. Many of these varieties are beautiful but not widely available.Depending on the climatic conditions of summer, the same varieties change the shade of the colors, therefore there is confusion in the names of the varieties of peonies.
For successful growth and abundant flowering, peonies should be placed in open, sunny places. The easiest way to reproduce is to divide old bushes at the end of August - September into several parts with 3-4 eyes on each. Strongly divided parts bloom in the second or third year after planting. The feeding area is 50X50, 70X100 or 100X100, depending on how long the plants are planted for. Planting pits are prepared deep and wide (70X70 cm), manure, bone meal are placed on the bottom, a fertile layer is poured on top
earth (20-25 cm), then in the center of the pit place a divided part of the plant and carefully fill it with nutritious soil, leaving no voids.
It must be borne in mind that a deep planting is harmful, peonies stop blooming. Therefore, the upper buds after planting should be buried in the ground no more than 5-6 cm. Abundant watering, weeding, systematic top dressing and annual surface mulching with humus contribute to abundant and prolonged flowering for a number of years. At the end of flowering, peonies are decorative with their foliage, which should not be completely cut into * bouquets, as is often practiced, since the leaves create nutrients.