Sumach (Anacardia)


The scumpia plant (Latin Cotinus) belongs to the genus of deciduous trees or shrubs of the Sumach family, common in regions with a temperate climate in Eurasia and eastern North America. There are only two species in the genus. The name "cotinus" was given to the plant by the French physician and botanist Joseph Tournefort - the ancient Greeks called the wild olive so. In culture, the scumpia tree has been known since the times of the ancient world, apparently, that is why it has so many names: zheltinnik, Venetian sumac, tanning tree, wig bush, smoky tree and others.


Water lily dishes

Since ancient times, chefs of rich and noble people have used this plant not only for decoration, but also for preparing delicious dishes.

So, for example, rhizomes after special processing can be dried in the sun and ground into fine and healthy flour, which will then be used as a base for homemade baked goods, most often for bread.

The seeds, obtained from the white water lily, were roasted and grinded, resulting in a natural coffee substitute that could not always be distinguished by taste.

For some hobbyists, the chefs cleaned the rhizomes and then cooked them into herbal soup. They say that this dish has a unique taste and is also extremely healthy.

If desired, it was possible to serve a water lily and fried. For these purposes, as a rule, the rhizome was used. A white water lily (a photo of this plant can easily be found on the Internet) decorated dishes and exuded a unique aroma.


The history of the study of the flora of the city of Moscow is closely connected with the study of the flora of Russia and the Moscow region. The territory of the Moscow region and Moscow is considered one of the most studied floristically regions of Russia.

Such fundamental academic reports as the 4-volume "Flora Rossica" ("Flora of Russia" published in Latin by K.F. Ledebour in 1841-1853) and, of course, 30- languid "Flora of the USSR" (1934-1964), the authors of which were many outstanding Soviet botanists. Scientists from Moscow research institutes and universities, including Moscow University, played a decisive role in the study of the Moscow flora and the accumulation of vast herbarium materials. A detailed idea of ​​the history of studying the flora and vegetation of the territory of the modern Moscow region, including the city of Moscow, is contained in the detailed summary “Flora and vegetation of the Moscow region. (History of study and annotated bibliography) ”[1].

There has always been an interest in the plants surrounding man. Initially, this interest was dictated by consumer goals, the study of food, medicinal, and technical properties of plants, but gradually, with an increase in the population and its density, a person moves to production activities, from the search and collection of useful plants to their cultivation.

Starting from the VIII century, the Slavs who settled these lands began to build villages and cities, engaging in agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting, fishing, trades and crafts. Until the end of the 15th century, Moscow consisted of separate parts connected by river valleys, between which areas of natural vegetation were preserved, alternating with an agricultural landscape. This period includes the first fragmentary information about forest and swampy areas in the vicinity of Moscow, which could be gleaned from the travel notes of Western diplomats and merchants who regularly visited the Moscow principality. At the same time, the first vast gardens were laid in Moscow, the basis of the collections of which were medicinal plants. One of them, located opposite the Kremlin on the embankment of the Moskva River, was organized in 1495, and the other was established in the 16th century as a pharmaceutical garden for the needs of the Tsar's pharmacy, on the right bank of the Neglinnaya River.

In the 16th-17th centuries, dams were built on the rivers within the city, the relief changed in some places, the fortifications of the White and Zemlyanoy Gorod were erected, which became the basis for the radial-ring development of Moscow with a system of fortress walls and earthen fortifications that has survived to this day. Craft and other professional settlements appeared. The need for artificial measures to protect the natural environment became apparent already under Ivan the Terrible and Boris Godunov. Under Empress Elizabeth, the first decree "On the withdrawal of harmful enterprises from Moscow" was issued. The intensity of the economic development of the city's territory made the last large forest tracts - Pogonno-Losiny Island and Izmailovsky Menagerie - be declared reserved.

In 1549, Notes on Moscow Affairs were published in Vienna by the Austrian diplomat Sigismund von Herberstein, who visited Russia in 1517 and 1526, where he wrote about the forests near Moscow, the abundance of hazel trees, the development of agriculture and the quality of soils.

In the notes of the Saxon traveler Adam Olearius, who visited Moscow in 1633 and 1636, published in Schleswig in 1647, it is noted that pine and spruce were the main building materials of Muscovites, and the areas occupied by conifers were decreasing, being replaced by birch forests.

A systematic study of the vegetation cover of the immediate environs of Moscow began in the 18th century. The first lists of plants of the Moscow flora and the first herbariums date back to this time. In 1706, by the decree of Peter I, the “Moscow Apothecary Garden” was founded behind the Sukharev Tower, acquired later (in 1805) by the Moscow University and has survived to this day. In 1735 it was headed by MD Traugott Gerber, the author of the handwritten work Catalogus plantarum circa Mosquarum crescentiumо (1742), dedicated to the Moscow flora. The work was written in Latin and contained the names of about two hundred plant species.

Around 1756, P. A. Demidov, one of the members of a family of famous Russian industrialists, organized a botanical garden on the slope of the left bank of the Moskva River valley (now the Neskuchny Garden is located here), publishing in 1786 a catalog of his garden's plants, which listed 4363 plant species [2]. Neskuchny Garden is still one of the favorite resting places of Muscovites today.

The very first scientific publications about the plants of Moscow are associated with the name of the academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences Peter Simon Pallas, who made a trip to various provinces of the Russian Empire in 1768-1774: from 4 to 14 July 1786 he visited the Apothecary garden near the Sukharev Tower, examined the steep banks in the valley of the Moskva River near the picturesque village of Horoshevo (then a distant suburb), and also visited Bratsevo on Skhodnya later in 1781, he studied the collections of the botanical garden of P. A. Demidov, a lover of botany and beekeeping, for almost a month. He did not disregard the "wonderful herb storage", where the herbalized plants of the Demidov Botanical Garden were kept. The result of this study was the publication in 1781 of "Enumiratio plantarum borto Demidof", which had the second title "Catalog of Plants of the Demidov Garden" [3], in which he wrote: "This garden not only has no similar one in all of Russia, but with many others The states with glorious botanical gardens can be compared with both the rarity and the multitude of plants contained in it ... ".

The author of the first printed "Moscow flora", Enumeratio stirpium agri Mosquensis [4], published in 1792, was Friedrich Stefan, who headed the Moscow Pharmaceutical Garden after Gerber and paid special attention to the plants of the nearest Moscow region. The paper contains descriptions of 860 species (including 701 species of vascular plants), indicating their habitats, flowering time and known locations. He owns the authorship of the herbal atlas of plants growing wildly near Moscow (about 50 species in total) with hand-painted tables (Icones plantarum Mosquensitum, ad bistorium plantarum sponte circa Mosquam crescentium illustrandan), published in 1795.

By the end of the 18th - beginning of the 19th centuries, the territory of Moscow was expanded and amounted to 70 square meters. km. It was based on diffuse manor-wooden buildings within the Kamer-Kollezhsky Val. At the same time, the natural limit of the development of natural landscapes was reached: the forest cover of the Moscow province was already 43%, and the area under arable land increased to 40%.

After the fire of 1812, many stone buildings were built in the city, and from the 1830s to the 1840s the city became one of the largest industrial centers in Russia. In the 19th century, low-rise buildings prevailed in Moscow, interrupted by frequent estates and gardens. All this caused the transformation of the urban relief, vegetation, weather conditions, sanitary conditions, etc. And yet 16% of the city's territory was then occupied by parks, gardens, boulevards and cemeteries, and 8% - dry meadows, wastelands, wetlands and reservoirs.

Further development of floristic work in Moscow and the Moscow region is associated with a number of significant events. In 1805, at Moscow University, the Moscow Society of Nature Experts (MOIP) was founded - the oldest Russian natural science society, which united under its auspices not only specialists, but also a large detachment of amateur naturalists. Many floristic articles and notes were published on the pages of his "Bulletin" and in other editions of MOIP. One of the founders of the MOIP was a German botanist, author of "The Flora of Germany" GF Hoffman, who was invited to Moscow University in connection with the organization of the Department of Botany and headed it in 1804. He contributed to the acquisition by the University of the Moscow Pharmaceutical Garden, on the basis of which a botanical garden was established in 1805. GF Hoffman also founded the university herbarium, which to date has collected a huge amount of material, including the flora of Moscow.

The second study of the "Moscow flora" is considered the work of G. Marcius "Introduction to the Moscow flora" [5], published in 1812? year, with a description of 796 species of vascular plants and 76 mosses. Among the noticeably increased number of floristic publications, important information about the flora of the Moscow Region is contained in the works of F.V. Lones, O. Ya.Liboshits, K.A. Trinius, M.I.Adams, and especially L.F. review of the Moscow flora "On the fate and development of herbarium business, especially the Russian Empire" (in Latin) and MA Maksimovich, who published in 1826 "List of plants of the Moscow flora" [6]

In 1828, "Moscow flora, or a description of plants growing wild in the Moscow province" by I. A. Dvigubsky [7] was published, based on the list of M. A. Maksimovich, which became the third "Moscow flora" and the first in Russian, in which 929 species have already been characterized, mainly wild or wild flowering plants. This work summed up the first period of study of the Moscow flora, mainly the plants of the immediate environs of Moscow, now included in the boundaries of the city limits.

In the last quarter of the 19th century, outside the Kamer-Kollezhsky Val, numerous factories and factories with adjacent working settlements began to be built, merging into vast industrial zones such as Presnya, Nizhniye Kotlov, Preobrazhensky, and others. replaced multi-storey buildings.

Moscow and its immediate environs, like many other industrial cities in Europe, have practically turned into a continuous anthropogenically transformed landscape.

The flow of floristic work that increased after 1828 was accompanied by an increase in the scientific level. This was largely facilitated by the publication in 1841-1843, 1851, 1853 of the classic "Flora of Russia" by KF Ledebour (in Latin). This edition not only clarified the names of the plants of our flora, but also provided more accurate data on their distribution and ecology, which gave impetus to the transition to a new period of study of the Moscow flora - botanical-geographical.

Among the numerous now floristic works (according to A.V. Shcherbakov, in the middle of the 19th century, 2-3 works were published annually, and at the end - more than 10), the publications of N.I. Annenkov, who summarized phenological observations on wild plants in 1851, stand out. environs of Moscow for the period from 1844 to 1849, as well as data on the acclimatization in Moscow of more than 100 species of tree species, published in 1856. He is also the author of popular scientific works: "Common names of Russian plants" (1858) and "Botanical Dictionary. A reference book for botanists, farmers, gardeners, foresters, pharmacists, doctors, drogists, travelers around Russia and rural residents in general ”(1878), containing brief information about the use of plants by the people.

Various studies were carried out at the experimental forest station in Petrovsko-Razumovsky (now belongs to the Moscow Agricultural Academy), where forest management works were carried out in 1862, and observations on floristry, ecology, phenology, which continue to the present day, began.

Critical processing of all the accumulated floristic material was carried out by N.N.Kaufman, who headed the Department of Botany of Moscow University in 1863 and the Botanical Garden in 1865. In his "Moscow Flora" [8], which went through two editions (1866, 1889), the botanical-geographical approach to the study of flora was applied for the first time in Russia. After its publication in subsequent studies of regional floras, there was a transition from the statement and uncritical listing of plants to the verification of names and diagnoses, the reliability of data based on herbarium collections, and the identification of botanical and geographical patterns in the formation of vegetation. A significant addition to his "Moscow Flora" was the herbarium, which contained a large number of collections from the immediate vicinity of Moscow (now within the city limits), numbering about 900 numbers, bequeathed to Moscow University.

The publication in 1892 of "Flora of Central Russia" by PF Maevsky marked a new stage in floristic research and had a significant impact on the further study of the flora of Moscow and adjacent regions in general and the flora of the city of Moscow, in particular. Taking as a basis the information collected by the professor of Moscow University, mathematician V. Ya. Tsinger and published in 1885 in the "Collection of information about the flora of Central Russia", he developed a teaching and scientific manual that made it possible to attract a huge group of young specialists to the study of plants in European Russia. biologists who learned plants through PF Maevsky's "Flora", which by now has already gone through 10 editions (the last one was published in 2006). "Flora" by PF Maevsky has become the central fundamental periodical, reflecting the qualitative changes in the flora of the middle zone of the European part of Russia, including its cities, for over 120 years.

The four-volume Illustrated Flora of the Moscow Province by DP Syreishchikov, published in 1906-1914, made a great contribution to the study of the flora of the Moscow region. It included numerous information from specialists and amateurs, and above all, materials from the "Critical Review of the Moscow Flora" by A. N. Petunnikov. On the basis of this flora, with a number of significant additions by D.P. Syreishchikov, in 1927, a brief guide to the plants of the Moscow province was published, which still retains its current importance. The stage work of DP Syreishchikov undoubtedly contributed to the intensification of further floristic research, but there were relatively few special works on the flora of Moscow.

In the post-revolutionary period in Moscow, such botanical research institutions were organized as the All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants with a Botanical Garden (1931), the Forest Institute (1919), the Lugovoy Institute (1922) and a number of others, as well as new universities, under which herbariums were organized. , nurseries were laid, new areas of study of the vegetation cover developed, individual and fragmented studies gave way to the systematic and comprehensive study of the vegetation cover, the interaction of the urban environment and nature.

In the 1920s-1930s, more and more attention was paid to the problems of plant protection. So, NS Elagin in the article "Nature Protection in Moscow Province", published in the journal "Moscow Regional Studies" in 1928 [9], gave the main results of the inventory of plant communities subject to protection on the territory of all sanctuaries, reserves and parks of this territory , and P. A. Ivanov and V. V. Alekhin then published a project of organizing a "regional park" on the basis of Neskuchny Garden of Moscow [9]. Since 1929, the garden and park subdivision of the Moscow Department of Public Utilities began to survey the plant resources available in the former noble estates, where valuable tree species were planted during the 18th-19th centuries. The experimental station in Petrovsko-Razumovskiy was also included in the number of these objects. In the same period, phenological observations of plants in Moscow and the Moscow region were developed. They were of particular value in relation to introduced species - plants from other regions and other countries grown in the conditions of Moscow. Of these, the assortment of plants used in landscaping the capital was replenished.

The growth of the city, as well as the number of factories, factories, storage areas, wastelands, landfills, roadside sites and the area they occupy, could not but affect the influx of alien and weed plants into the city, which find their second home here. Interesting in this regard is the article by A. V. Kozhevnikov, an employee of the Moscow State University botanical garden, "Weed and adventive flora of the Moscow Botanical Garden," published in the Moscow Botanical Garden Bulletin in 1935 [10], with a description of 222 species of garbage and weed plants ("urbanists"), weeds crop plants, local - "native" plants from natural habitats and introduced by humans from other geographical (mainly southern) regions. This article has received a modern reflection and development in the work "Abstract of the flora of adventive plants of the Moscow region" [11], which summarizes observations over the past 200 years and provides data on the distribution of alien plants in Moscow.

Significant for Moscow was the organization in 1945 in Ostankino of the Main Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (now - GBS named after N.V. Tsitsin of the Russian Academy of Sciences), which headed the work on the study of flora and vegetation of Moscow [12] and attraction of species and forms of domestic natural flora and foreign plants.

The changes were especially significant for Moscow in the period 1950-1970, when the territory of Moscow expanded significantly (in the early 1960s, a new city border was drawn along the then-built Moscow ring road), and in place of the old villages and villages near Moscow (Cheryomushki, Fili , Kuzminki, Beskudnikovo, etc., about 160 in total), new residential areas appeared. The number of the population also increased significantly (the rate of growth was up to 300 thousand people a year). The load on the surviving natural territories and their living population - flora and fauna - has noticeably increased.

In areas of new development, areas of old-growth plantings were brought down and replaced with artificial young plantings, swamp areas were drained, areas under meadows were reduced, village gardens gave way to new urban plantings, parks and squares. The process of urbanization was especially intensive in the 1970s-1980s, when new territories of the city were rapidly developed and the question arose about its new expansion, already outside the Moscow Ring Road.

At this time, floristic research in the city largely focused on the study of the adventive and synanthropic flora of the city, as well as on the problems of biodiversity conservation on its territory. The latter, in particular, was facilitated by the adoption on October 27, 1960 of the first in the history of the country "Law of the RSFSR on the protection of nature." It was he who laid the legislative basis for the protection of air, water, soil, flora and fauna for the organization of various types of specially protected natural areas, and also stipulated the process of participation of state bodies and the public in nature protection. This law provided a legal basis for the creation of other (except for state reserves) types of protected natural areas, the creation of which no longer required the seizure of land and on which it was allowed to conduct economic activities that did not threaten protected natural objects - reserves and natural monuments.

If in the 1960s and 1970s zakazniks and natural monuments were created mainly outside the city, in the Moscow region, since the 1980s this process has been actively developed within the city of Moscow. At the same time, according to the regulation on these protected areas, to justify their creation, it was required to conduct a natural-scientific, including botanical, survey of the sites proposed for protection. On the territory of Moscow in 1983, one of the first national parks in Russia, Losiny Ostrov, was created, the territory of which was also botanically investigated [13], which was also important from the point of view of organizing the correct zoning of the territory.

Many natural and historical sites also play a significant role in preserving the green dress of the city. First of all, these include monuments of landscape gardening art. In Moscow, these are, first of all, the estates of Ostankino, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and a number of others, as well as Neskuchny Garden, the territory of the All-Russian Exhibition Center and the adjacent territory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and a number of others. In recent years, these objects have also become the subject of close attention from many Moscow botanists, zoologists and experts in the field of nature conservation [14] [15].

The ecological and urban planning concept of the city of Moscow, developed back in 1990, proceeds from the possibility of restoring the natural diversity in the city due to the belt configuration of river valleys, which ensure unhindered movement along them and the connection of individual habitats with each other. Deep penetration into the city of zonal and regional natural communities creates the continuity of the ecological infrastructure of the city, increases its stability and ability to recover in case of destruction. Almost the only natural element in Moscow, as in any large city, is green space. They are the basis of the natural complex of the city.

The newest printed source on the species composition of the Moscow flora is the "List of vascular plants of the Moscow flora" (Shcherbakov, Lyubeznova, 2018) [1], which covers both wild and invasive plants (including wild cultivated plants). For Moscow (within the Moscow Ring Road), 1908 taxa of vascular plants (species, subspecies and hybrids) are given here, including 1006 alien plants (52.7%).

The open database "Flora of Moscow" in the Digital Herbarium of Moscow State University [2], which is by far the most complete resource for the diversity of plants in the capital, includes 2434 species for Moscow (within the current borders): 2223 species of vascular plants and 211 species of bryophytes. These data are based on a thorough inventory of 37,304 specimens of herbarium collections that were digitized in the two largest herbariums in Moscow - the Herbarium of Moscow University (MW) and the Herbarium of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences (MHA). The database is constantly updated with information about new samples, for each of which a high-quality image is available, accompanying text information about the time, place, author and conditions of collection, as well as georeferencing with a label on the map.

Civil project “Flora of Moscow | Flora of Moscow ”[3] on the popular crowdsourcing platform iNaturalist was founded on December 29, 2018. During the first two years of the project (seasons 2019 and 2020), 1811 registered users discovered, photographed and published online 77223 growing points of 1128 species of vascular plants, in including several new species for the flora of the city. This online resource also does not cover crops that do not run wild. The project is supervised by the staff of the Lomonosov Moscow State University as part of the Flora of Russia portal [4].

The flora of the city of Moscow numbers 1,647 species of vascular plants belonging to 640 genera and 136 families. The vast majority of families, genera and species belong to the department Magnoliophyta... It includes almost 98% of the city's flora species. Representatives of the class prevail Magnoliopsida (77.5%), share of class species Liliopsida much lower (22.5%). Spore and coniferous plants account for about 2.3% of flora species. Among them, the greatest diversity is noted in the department Polypodiophyta (17 types).

Comparison of the composition and systematic structure of the flora of the city of Moscow with data on the flora of other regions shows that the main proportions of the flora of Moscow are typical for the temperate floras of the Holarctic.

The total share of species in the top 10 families is a little more than 56% of the city's flora. Families are in the lead Asteraceae and Poaceae, accounting for a total of 22% of the flora of the city. There is an increase, in comparison with the regional flora, the role of some families rich in adventive species - Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae and, at the same time, a reduction in the share of other families (Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae), occupying higher positions in regional floras. Such a change in the structure of the spectrum of the leading families is characteristic of the floras of other cities and anthropogenic landscapes.

The average number of species in one family is 12. More than half of the families include 1-3 species. The genus is the largest in terms of the number of species Carex (47 types). Genera with only one species prevail and account for 57% of their total number.

Among the spectrum of life forms in the urban flora, perennial herbaceous plants prevail (56%). The share of annuals is about 2 times lower - 27%. In general, herbaceous plants make up about 90% of the city's flora. Trees, shrubs, shrubs, semi-shrubs and semi-shrubs account for only 10% of the flora. Trees predominate among woody plants.

Life forms Number of species
flora
Share in flora,
%
Wood 76 4,6
Bush 70 4,3
Shrub 11 0,7
Half-shrub 5 0,3
Shrub 3 0,2
Perennial 929 56,4
Biennial 103 6,3
Annual 450 27,3
Total: 1647 100

The structure of the spectrum of life forms generally corresponds to those in other regional floras of central Russia. But, unlike the latter, in the urban flora there is an increase in the proportion of annual plants (due to alien species) and trees and shrubs (due to those that run wild from culture). Thus, changes in the structure of the flora of the city occur within the framework of the structure inherent in the regional flora, and changes in the ratio of individual groups of plants in the urban flora should be considered as ecological-cenotic, territorial modifications of the regional flora.

Adventive plant species make up half of the entire flora of the city of Moscow (824 species). They belong to 423 genera and 102 families. Among angiosperms, the proportion of adventive species is the highest in the class Magnoliopsida (53%), among monocotyledonous plants (Liliopsida), on the contrary, aboriginal species predominate (about 57%).

In the flora of Moscow, differences in a number of indicators are observed not only between the groups of aboriginal and adventive species, but also between the two main fractions of the adventive flora - xenophytes and ergasiophytes. So the diversity of families, genera and species is higher in the aboriginal faction.

Indicators / types Aboriginal Xenophytes Ergasiophytes
Number of families 103 53 83
Number of births 358 224 256
Number of species 823 440 384
Species in 10 families.
(Share in flora)
451 (54,8%) 321 (73%) 194 (50,4%)
Number of species
per family
8 8,3 4,6

Among adventive plants, the diversity of families and genera is higher in the ergasiophyte fraction, but xenophytes are in the lead in the number of species. The number of species per family is approximately the same in xenophytes and indigenous plants; in ergasiophytes, this indicator is minimal. The total share of species in the ten leading families is maximal in xenophytes (more than 70% of the composition of the fraction); in the fractions of native flora and ergasiophytes, this indicator is noticeably lower.

Consequently, xenophytes are characterized by a small number of families with a higher species richness, while ergaziophytes, on the contrary, are characterized by a relatively large number of small-species families. This pattern is associated with human activity, who selected plants (decorative, food, etc.) for their needs from a variety of taxa and geographic regions. The group of xenophytes, as spontaneously formed, was formed mainly from representatives of a relatively small number of families.

Differences are also noted in the spectrum of the leading families. In the aboriginal faction, the leading positions are occupied by families Asteraceae, Poaceae and Cyperaceaemaking up 25% of the city's native flora. In the spectrum of xenophytes, the first place is taken by the family Poaceaewhich together with Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and Chenopodiaceae form half of the entire composition of the fraction. A feature of the spectrum of ergasiophytes is the strengthening of the role of the family Rosaceae, which occupies the second position, which is explained by the high diversity of this taxon by the species involved in culture. As part of this fraction, the types of families Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Poaceae make up 27%.

The genus with the largest number of species in the aboriginal fraction is Carex (43 species), among xenophytes - Artemisia (12 species), in the ergasiophyte fraction - Acer (8 types).

In the spectrum life forms The native flora is dominated by perennial grasses (72.3%), the share of annual and biennial plants is more than three times lower, trees and shrubs are represented by approximately the same number of species and make up about 5% of its composition. In the xenophyte fraction, the leading role belongs to one- and two-year-old plants, accounting for more than 60% of its composition. A characteristic feature of the ergasiophyte spectrum is a high participation rate of woody plants - about 27% (the maximum for the compared groups). The share of one- and two-year-old species reaches approximately the same value (about 28%).

As part of the adventive faction by degree of naturalization unstable, random and temporary species prevail - ephemerophytes (53%), which appear in the city due to their constant unintentional introduction by humans from other regions or due to accidental self-seeding from cultivated populations. The share of colonophytes reaches 24%. The species that settle in anthropogenic habitats (epecophytes) and (or) natural (agriophytes) account for about 23%.

Thus, the high diversity of the adventive faction, and, accordingly, the flora of the city is largely formed due to components that are unstable in time and space.

In the structure of fractions of adventive flora, there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of naturalized components. The share of unstable (ephemerophytes) and unstable (colonophytes) species is higher in the xenophyte fraction, respectively - 54% and 25%. The total share of epecophytes and agriophytes is higher in the fraction of ergaziophytes (about 26%), and the latter predominate (species capable of invading natural communities). On the contrary, among xenophytes, epecophytes predominate. Thus, unintentionally introduced species (xenophytes) settle mainly in secondary habitats, while the main source of species intruding into natural communities is “fugitives from culture” (Acer negundo, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens parviflora, Solidago serotinoides other).

The city is a highly dynamic system over time, the change of which is associated with various economic and social factors. The vegetation cover, as an element of the urban environment, is directly or indirectly influenced by all these factors and phenomena. There is a decrease in the number and disappearance of some species, the appearance, an increase in the occurrence of others.

Extinct species of flora. For about 150 years of observation, 104 plant species disappeared from the city [16]. Some species that have disappeared from natural habitats are currently cultivated or found as accidentally introduced in anthropogenic habitats.

Comparison of the spectrum of flora and the spectrum of extinct species shows that among the extinct species there is a noticeable excess of the share of spore plants (mainly due to representatives Ophioglossopsida and Lycopodiopsida) and a slight excess of the share Liliopsida, that is, there is a steady downward trend in the species of these particular taxonomic groups. Among the extinct species, there are no representatives of conifers.

Extinct plant species (IR) belong to 39 families. Among them, species of families prevail Ranunculaceae, Orchidaceae, Cyperaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Poaceae... According to the ratio of the number of IRs to the number of species in a given family, more than a third of species have lost their families Ericaceae, Orchidaceae, Gentianaceae, Botrychiaceae, Lycopodiaceae other. Some single-species families from the modern flora of the city have completely disappeared (Orobanchaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Elatinaceae).

Among the extinct plants, perennial herbaceous plants prevail (65%) and woody plants are completely absent.

About 70% of the extinct species are native plants. Among them, the largest share of species confined to habitats with excessive moisture - marsh, marsh-forest, meadow-marsh, aquatic and coastal (more than a third of species). Among the extinct forest forests, forest-edged and coniferous forest species prevail. Depletion of native flora occurs, first of all, due to ecologically specialized species and plants of “borderline”, successionally unstable communities. The share of adventive plants is 30% of the number of extinct species.

Some extinct plants are among the declining or very rare in the Moscow region and other regions (Coeloglossum viride, Cypripedium guttatum, Diplazium sibiricum, Gladiolus imbricatus, Hottonia palustris, Liparis loeselii, Orchis militaris, Pulsatilla patens other). Most of the extinct adventive species are known from single finds. Later, they were not found in Moscow oblast. (Anagallis foemina, Avena strigosa, Centaurea trichocephala, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Meniocus linifolius, Onosma tinctoria, Sherardia arvensis, Stipagrostis plumosa).

Increase in the number of flora species. Along with the process of extinction of species, an opposite process is taking place - its enrichment due to adventive plant species. This process is most pronounced precisely in highly urbanized areas. Within Moscow, the adventive component of the flora has been insufficiently studied in the past. For these reasons, its quantitative growth can only be estimated approximately. In about 70 years, about 200- (250) species of xenophytes and about 150- (190) ergasiophytes appeared.

Among the plants that appeared at about the beginning of the 20th century or at a later time, the number of adventive species that increased their occurrence, the abundance is about 40 (50) species. Among them, xenophytes (Artemisia umbrosa, Atriplex oblongifolia, Bidens frondosa, Diplotaxis muralis, Geum macrophyllum, Lactuca tatarica, Lepidium densiflorum, Oenothera rubricaulis and etc.). The proportion of ergasiophytes is slightly lower (Echinocystis lobata, Festuca arundinacea, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Helianthus subcanescens, Solidago serotinoides, Symphytum caucasicum, Veronica filiformis and etc.). However, the diversity of habitats in which species are found, on the contrary, is, on average, higher in ergasiophytes.


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