The crown of a young fruit tree must be constantly monitored. If the shoots are not regularly shortened, the branches will grow long and ankle, the fruits will form only at the ends, and the center of the crown will remain bare. So you can't do without regular pruning in the garden. When thinning the crown, do not rush to immediately remove the branch that you do not like, think, maybe it is enough to change its direction.
For example, a branch grows at a too sharp angle, close to the trunk. This is bad. Since it is directed upward, it will grow quickly and can catch up with the main conductor, which forms a fork in the branch. But cutting it out is also undesirable - there will be a large wound on the trunk. Find a branch that points to the side (the tilted the better) and cut the branch away from it. By doing this, you will transfer growth to a side branch, and the situation will be corrected.
The shoot needs to be cut over the bud that is directed in the right direction (more often from the center of the crown). At the same time, the knot should not remain, but an inexperienced gardener often damages the kidney, and the shoot begins to grow from a neighboring kidney, which is located just unsuccessfully. Therefore, it is better to leave a small knot above the kidney, and after a year it will dry out, remove it.
How to properly prune an apple tree if the tree is old enough or even old? In this case, you will need anti-aging pruning, which is preceded by sanitary pruning. After the apple tree is completely peeled, remove all old branches that are no longer able to please with a bountiful harvest. Some tops are also removed. Crossed shoots are cut into a ring. All branches directed inside the crown or vertically downward must be cut off. The overgrowth is subject to destruction.
The description of the procedure in the special literature emphasizes that at the end of all work on the rejuvenation of the apple tree, the trunk is shortened. So that the intensity of fruiting does not decrease, an adult tree is pruned from 3.5 to 2.5 meters.
Attention! For trees over 8 years old, rejuvenating pruning is carried out in several stages.
If an old tree loses a lot of vegetative mass in one year, then it will experience great stress, it will hurt and may even dry out later.
Sparse-tiered crowns retain the central conductor throughout their life, which makes the tree more durable. Skeletal branches extend from the trunk evenly in all directions. The branching angle from the trunk is 40 - 60 °. The branches are arranged in groups (tiers) or singly: the first tier, then - the gap, the second tier, again the gap, another tier and height limitation by transferring the central conductor to the lateral branch. In a temperate climate, more than three tiers are not made and more than three branches are not left in a tier.
Here are some examples of branch locations:
a) 1st and 2nd tiers - 2 branches each. Above - 2 - 3 single branches
b) 1st tier - 2 branches. Above - 3 - 4 single branches
c) 1st tier - 3 branches; 2nd - 2 branches above - 1-2 single branches.
Other options are also possible. The number of skeletal branches depends on the growth characteristics of the tree, but in any case there should not be more than 8 - 9. The stronger the tree branches, the less skeletal branches are left.
1st YEAR. The sparse-tiered crown begins to form from the age of one. Usually, the first crowning is carried out in the nursery. If the seedling is not cut, it is shortened at the height of the expected 1st tier plus 10 - 20 cm.For vigorous trees, the crown height is 60 - 80 cm; for undersized trees, it is 40 - 60 cm. When buying two-year-old seedlings, it is better to choose plants with 2 - 3 strong side branches directed in different directions.
2nd YEAR. If a two-year-old seedling does not have good side branches, then the entire formation should be carried out from the very beginning, as if it were a one-year-old seedling. And if there are such branches, then 2 - 3 skeletal branches are left on two-year-old trees. It is important that there is some distance between the branches: if all branches grow at approximately the same level (according to the whorl principle), the central conductor will weaken, and the crown will not be strong enough.
The growths extending from the trunk at an acute angle are cut out. Branches growing horizontally and bent down are removed: they are weak, short-lived, and are not suitable for the formation of a skeleton. If there are no other suitable branches, you can try to strengthen the horizontal branches. To do this, they are placed more vertically, pulling them to the trunk with a rope. A soft material is placed under the rope so as not to damage the bark, and during the season they make sure that the rope does not cut into the wood.
All left branches are shortened in a special way. This technique is called subordination. The central conductor is left the highest; it should be 15 - 25 cm higher than the lateral branches. Strongly spreading branches are shortened to a bud located inside the crown, vertically directed branches - to an external bud.
3rd YEAR. On the central conductor, 1 - 2 branches are again selected for the 2nd tier. The distance between the tiers can be from 50 to 80 cm, in trees with a strongly compressed crown - more. If you look at the tree from above, then the branches of each next tier should be located between the branches of the lower tiers. Extra branches that do not fit into the formation system are removed. Also cut out sharp forks, branches directed downward, growing inside the crown, rubbing and duplicating each other. All remaining branches are shortened, consistently subordinating them to each other and to the central conductor.
4th YEAR. The 3rd tier is laid according to the same principle.
5th YEAR. The central conductor is removed, transferring it to a weak lateral branch or to the upper branch of the last tier. The formation of the skeleton is now complete, and the tree, most likely, has already yielded its first harvests. Now the main task is to maintain the crown in a given size and remove thickening and diseased branches.
Low-growing apple trees need pruning just as much as regular ones. The crown must be trimmed in order to create the so-called biological balance.
Judge for yourself, because in the process of transplanting, the root system of the seedling decreases and the crown, naturally, begins to receive less nutrients from the soil. Therefore, you should remove some of the foliage so that the remaining branches and leaves are fully nourished. But if the crown is significantly reduced, the roots in this case will receive less nutrients from the foliage and, ultimately, will die off. Therefore, it is so important to properly trim the crown.
It is necessary to carry out pruning according to all the rules. Having made a mistake, it is sometimes impossible to fix it in the future. Some gardeners discourage pruning. However, this is fundamentally wrong. Indeed, with the help of it, you can control such an important natural action as fruiting.
Initially, you should focus on the number of buds and the order of their awakening in the spring. Connoisseurs of gardening know that the upper buds begin to bloom immediately on most apple trees. It is they who will subsequently give you an active growth, which is called the continuation escape. The apple tree also has a competitive shoot. It is located next to the upper kidney and can overtake the apical buds.
The buds located at the end of the shoot will give young shoots, and those located in the middle will develop much later, and you should not expect a large number of shoots from them. By removing the upper buds, you will cause the development of the middle ones, and only then are they able to give strong shoots.
Before pruning dwarf apple trees, you need to understand the features of the kidneys. During pruning, you should leave exactly those that are capable of affecting growth and forming a crown.
It is advisable that pruning is carried out in the fall or spring, while the young shoots have not yet begun to actively grow. It is necessary to take into account the variety and features of the development of seedlings. After all, it will depend on which - external or internal, kidney you will be pruning. If your goal is to enlarge the crown, then it is advisable to direct the young branches to the outside. Thus, you will ensure that the plant grows compact, and its branches will not sag.
Remember, branches of any tree develop unevenly. Among them there are both the weak and the strong. It is the latter that can interfere with the proper development and growth of small, more fragile branches, which can contribute to their death. Try to regulate the growth of the branches so that the strong branches are lower than the weak ones. This is achieved with the help of a certain pruning. If you regulate the growth and formation of branches in young dwarf apple trees as early as possible, then you will achieve the desired result. If you missed the opportunity and did not take care of such a crown formation at the formation stage, it will be impossible to fix it later.
Pruning should be stronger during fruit growth. After all, the branches are quite quickly and strongly overloaded under the influence of the fruits. And this, in the end result, will negatively affect both the quality of the fruit and the stability of fruiting. To avoid this, try to immediately rejuvenate those branches that are overgrown.
Trimming apple trees on a dwarf rootstock is carried out only after the formation of the crown. After planting, the seedling needs a couple of years to develop and strengthen the skeletal branches, as well as the main leader shoot. During this time, the crown acquires many branches that it absolutely does not need. Usually, young shoots are cut out with the onset of spring. Until that moment, the tree will have to spend a lot of nutrients on their growth. If you didn't have time in the spring, then you can do the shoots in the summer - this will also contribute to the successful laying of new formations. And the result is a rich harvest.
Remember that the purpose of pruning will always depend on the age of your undersized pet. In young trees, the main goal is to form a compact and strong crown that can withstand a rich harvest with dignity. With age, through pruning, we maintain a small tree growth, as well as increase the size and quality of the fruit.
The shoots of some young plum trees can grow up to 2 meters in length during the season, while others, on the contrary, barely stretch 20 cm.It is worth noting that in this case, the side branch can overtake the central branch many times and at the same time grow more slowly than the branches located nearby.
In addition, plum, especially at a young age, is capable of branching strongly. Long shoots appear from almost all lateral buds. There are varieties that shoot long shoots from the top. Consequently, the crowns of plum trees can vary significantly, ranging from shaggy to compact. In order for the plum to have an attractive and comfortable crown shape, the most important stage in its formation is formative pruning.
It is more correct to start it immediately after planting the tree in a permanent place.
During the formation of the crown, it is important to ensure that the leading position remains with the center conductor, while the main branches should grow in balance.
There should be no thickening in the crowns, but bare branches are not preferable.
The optimal shape of the plum tree crown is considered to be sparse-tiered. The stem should not be higher than 30-40 cm. No more than 3 branches should be left at the bottom, tier 2 should consist of 2-3 branches, further tiers should have 1 branch each. To prevent the tree from breaking, it is worth leaving in the role of the main those branches that extend from the tree trunk at an angle not exceeding 40 degrees. It is important to leave a distance of at least 60 cm between the tiers, a distance of 15 cm should be observed between the branches, it is more correct to place single branches at a distance of 30-40 cm.
In order to completely cover the main branches with fouling, it is important to keep an eye on the absence of exposed areas. For these purposes, a differentiated shortening system is used. Those trees that have medium to strong bud awakening, annual branches should be cut at ¼ of their length. If the awakening is low, then by 1/3, those branches that have a very weak awakening should be cut by 1/2.
Do not forget that it is more correct not to shorten those branches that are capable of branching strongly. Here you can apply the method of thinning branches or bending them to a horizontal position.
It is also important to say that the growth and fruiting of this tree have their own characteristics. The first is the early maturity of the kidneys. During the summer, 2 waves of growth are no exception. Second, the buds of the plum tree are simple, so either shoots or flowers can grow from them. In the axils of the leaves, the buds are placed in groups of 2-3 or singly. The first option assumes the presence of 1 growth and 1-2 - flower buds.
At the bottom of strong and long shoots, mainly single growth buds are located, in the middle of the branch there are often group buds. In those places where there were single buds, after fruiting, scars will remain, and the branch will become bare. Shoot growth is possible in these places.
Those places where there were group buds will bear fruits and short branches, similar to bouquet twigs.
If the shoots grow poorly, the lateral buds will always be single flower buds and after fruiting they will certainly be bare. As for the spurs and bouquet branches, proper care for them will allow you to harvest up to 5 years in a row, but poor care and negatively affecting conditions in 1-2 years will lead to the death of these branches.
So, as it became clear, the formation of a plum crown is a rather laborious process. We will provide tips for pruning the crown according to the years of growth of the tree.
Peach trees are very sensitive to the pruning process. Due to the high rate of formation of young shoots, the peach needs it very often. In the absence of timely pruning, crop overload is possible, and this is fraught with depletion of the tree and even its death.
The pruning process includes:
1. Prune peaches best in spring. Pruning is carried out before the budding period. After that, it can be carried out in the summer two or three times. In spring, pruning is used to form the crown of a tree, for better lighting and air penetration, while spring pruning stimulates fruiting, and in summer, on the contrary, we prune less often, because foliage contains the maximum amount of nutrients. Pruning is not allowed in winter.
2.Peach pruning is done with a variety of tools, from pruning shears and pruning shears to saws. For an even cut, you need to monitor the blade of the tool, sharpen and remove the remnants of the earth and plants in time. Tools must be clean and disinfected so as not to infect healthy branches.
3. Trees require maintenance in the summer. Prune the crown in autumn and spring. In the spring, before the buds begin to swell and bloom, we cut off the branches. We cut it in several stages. In a young peach, shoots grow in two to four stages per year. A young tree should not have many branches cut. Once a year, you need to thin out the crown.
Branches are divided into types: mixed, summer, growth, generative, bouquet and tops. The bulk of the harvest is formed on the bouquet branches. Bouquet branches die off after the first fruiting. As a result, the branches quickly become bare, and fruiting is transferred to the zone of strong growth. Small fruits are formed on the generative (fruit) branches.
In spring, peach is pruned - the crown is thinned, diseased and dried branches must be removed, summer - is aimed at eliminating branches damaged after winter frosts. During this period, only strong branches should be left, growing to the side and at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other.Anti-aging pruning should be done by the end of August. To prepare for winter, the tree should be pruned for sanitary purposes. This preparation process involves removing old, damaged and dry branches. such branches can harbor pests and infections.
Spring peach pruning
In pruning, it is important: prune off shoots containing sprout buds and then thin out the crown by removing branches that grow inward.
Pruning a young tree is done as follows:
- during planting of the seedling, we leave three or four lower shoots, cut off the rest
- in the first year we pinch the main conductor
- in the second year, we shorten the grown shoots by 1/3 of the length
- in the third year, we remove part of the crown and branches that grow inward.
Horizontal shoots will not bear fruit, so we also cut them off.
Peach pruning scheme:
We form the crown
Most often they form a bowl-shaped crown. This is the best option for a peach. It is better to form the crown in the spring, which precedes the flowering of the buds.
Process diagram: in the first year in the summer we choose three strong shoots. We direct the upper shoot vertically, and the remaining two in opposite directions. Remove the rest of the shoots and buds. When the shoots reach a length of 40 cm, they are tied at an angle of 45 degrees to the slats. When the shoots reach a length of 50 cm, remove the central shoot.
On the second year it is necessary to cut off the lateral branches to the growth bud. To stimulate growth activity in new and young shoots in the future growing season, cut a triple bud at a distance of 40 cm from the trunk. In the summer, we choose 4 strong shoots with a main lateral branch. Of these, one shoot will extend the branch, and the remaining shoots must be removed.
On the third year it is necessary to shorten the conductor by 1/3 by cutting one kidney.
On the fourth year the peach brings its first harvest. At this stage, we finish forming the crown and carry out only thinning. For varieties with dense distribution of fruit buds, we use "economic pruning". We remove annual weak growths by 20 cm, and stronger branches by 40 cm. On such branches we leave from 3 to 8 groups of fruit buds. By shaping the crown, in this way, we create a comfortable growing environment for our fruitful tree.
- we carry out strong pruning during budding or budding, in dry and warm weather
- in pruning, we combine the shortening of the growth for fruiting and for replacement
- cut out the spawning growths "on the ring"
- in the fourth year, the number of shoots for fruiting will reach from 100 to 200 pieces
- for a peach tree, the optimum height reaches 3.5 meters
- the weakening of growth activity indicates a decrease in yield
- minimum removal of one-year increments
- after a harsh winter, it is necessary to carry out a strong pruning.
Timely pruning and a properly formed crown of the tree will benefit and a good harvest of peaches.
A source: portal about garden and vegetable garden Agromir